From the History of the Jewish Movement


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1975-1976
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1974
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1973
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1972
Chronology
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1948-1971
The Jews of Struggle
By Michael Beizer
“I Don’t Know
Whom to Thank”
By Michael Beizer
Jewish Movement in USSR:
what was its essence?
By Michael Beizer
Interrogation
By Dina Beilin
Hijacking Their Way
Out of Tyranny
By Gal Beckerman
An Exodus in our Time
By Louis Rosenblum
Andropov and the Jews.
by Martin Gilbert
Jacob Birnbaum and Soviet Jews.
by Yossi Klein Halevi. Part 1
Jacob Birnbaum and Soviet Jews.
by Yossi Klein Halevi. Part 2

Chronology of events
of the Zionist movement in the Soviet Union


Dear friends, website visitors!


We offer you a chronology of events, directly or indirectly related to the Jewish movement in the USSR in the period from 1948 to the end of 1980th. The chronology presented in our website, is part of the chronology of events compiled by Yuli Kosharovsky and Enid Wurtman and published in the third volume of the book by Yuli Kosharovsky "Once again we are Jews.Essays on the History of the Zionist movement in the Soviet Union. " The first volume of this book was published in Jerusalem in 2007, the second - in 2008 and the third - in 2009, now Yuli Kosharovsky continues to work on the fourth (and last) volume of his fundamental work that can rightly be called the first comprehensive book describing the history of the Zionist movement in the Soviet Union in the second half of the 20th century. Three chapters of this book were posted to our website in the "From the history of the Jewish movement" section.

The fundamental character of the book led lighting history of Zionism in general, as well as the general historical background on which it has being developed.  Therefore, the chronology compiled by Yuli Kosharovsky and Enid Wurtman covers the period beginning in the late 19th century and ending in the late 20th century, and includes events which had no direct relationship to the Jewish movement, but, nevertheless, influenced it to some extent. Given that our site is devoted to the period from 1948 to late 1980th, we, with the permission of the authors of the chronology, put here its relevant part. It should also be borne in mind that part of the history after 1980th is currently being processed and not yet ready for publication, so it will be added later.

For technical reasons related to the structure of the site, the chronology provided here is divided into a number of separate parts. Following the chronology is a list of sources that were used in its preparation. References to them are placed in brackets after the summary of relevant events.


Webmaster and the site editor Edward Markov



1948-1971


Date Event
01-10-1948 "Pravda" sharply condemns and critcizes Zionism.
16-10-1948  Israeli Ambassador Golda Meir's visit to Moscow synagogue on the Jewish New Year inspires huge crowds (8, p. 4).
20-11-1948 Closure of the  Jewish Antifascist Committee newspaper Eynikayt (4).
20-11-1948 The  closure of the Jewish Antifascist Committee by decision of the Bureau of the Council of Ministers.
10-12-1948 Adoption of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (8, p. 5).
25-12-1948 Arrest of poet Itsik Fefer a member of the Jewish Antifascist Committee  (17, p. 8).
23-01-1949 Arrest of David Bergelson, Lev Kvitko, Moisey Belensky (9, p.501).
27-01-1949 Arrest of Peretz Markish (9, p.501).
28-01-1949 Article in Pravda, "An Anti-patriotic Group of Theater Critics" - the beginning of the campaign against cosmopolitanism.
29-01-1949 Article in the Literary Gazette - "From the Alien Positions"- the campaign against cosmopolitanism.
03-05-1950 Arrest of Vitaly Svechinsky, Roman Brahman and Michael Margulis. Sentence - ten year  in labor camp.
12-08-1952 "Night of the murdered poets"  - execution by shooting of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee members, S.A. Lozovsky, I.S. Feffer, I.S. Yuzefovich, B.A. Shimeliovich, L.M. Kvitko, P.D. Markish, D.R. Bergelson, D.N. Hofshtein, V.L. Zuskin, L.Y. Talmy, I.S. Vatenberg, E.I. Teuman, Ch.S. Vatenberg-Ostrovsky. S.L. Bergman died in prison.
13-01-1953 Article in Pravda "Dastardly Spies and Assassins in the Guise of Professors and Doctors"- the beginning of the campaign against the "Doctors plot"(3).
09-02-1953 Bomb attack on the Soviet Embassy in Tel Aviv (22, Yaakov Herut, operation participant).
13-02-1953 Soviet Union breaks diplomatic relations with Israel due to terrorist attacks on the Soviet Embassy in Tel Aviv.
05-03-1953 Stalin's death. Georgy Malenkov headed the Government.
26-06-1953 Lavrenty Beria's arrest by the military, headed by Marshal Zhukov.
00-12-1953 Ben-Gurion resigned as Prime Minister of the Israeli government. Moshe Sharett becomes Prime Minister.
23-12-1953 Execution by shooting of Lavrenty Beria.
00-08-1955 Expulsion from the USSR of the "Liaison Office" employees  Levanon, Sela and Kegety (46).
00-11-1955 After the third elections to the Knesset, Ben-Gurion once again becomes Prime Minister.
25-02-1956 Closed speech by Nikita Khrushchev at the Twentieth Party Congress on the personality cult of Stalin (3).
29-10-1956 Sinai Campaign of Israel, Britain and France 29.10-4.11 (3, 4).
04-11-1956 Soviet troops entry into Hungary to crush the Hungarian uprising (3).
28-07-1957 Sixth International Youth Festival in Moscow from July 28 to August 11.
25-04-1958 Arrest in Moscow of Dora, Shimon and Boris Podolsky; Tina Brodetsky and Evsei Drobovsky.
12-12-1958 Arrest in Moscow of Anatoly Belfer and David Khavkin (22, Khavkin).
15-09-1960 First international conference on Soviet Jewry in Paris (13, 12).
00-07-1961 Campaign against economic crimes begins, continued until March 1963 (13, 16).
19-09-1961 The poem by Yevgeny Yevtushenko "Babi Yar" published in honor of the twentieth anniversary of the mass execution of Jews in Kiev (18, p.180).
00-08-1962 Cuban missile crisis after the installation of Soviet missiles in Cuba.
00-00-1963 A book, "Judaism Without Embellishment," by Trofim Kichko is published in USSR.  (9, p. 618-619).
00-00-1963  Elie Wiesel's book, Jews of Silence is published in the U.S.
00-06-1963 Ben-Gurion resigned from his post as head of the government due to disagreements with the leadership of his party (Mapai). Levi Eshkol becomes Prime Minister of Israel.
12-10-1963 In Cleveland, Ohio, USA,  the "Cleveland Committee on Soviet Anti-Semitism" is created under the leadership of Louis Rosenblum, the future first president of the All-American organization, the Union of Councils for Soviet Jewry"(7, p. 4).
21-10-1963 Conference in New York on the topic: "The Status of Soviet Jews." Organizer - Moshe Dektor (13, p.18).
00-01-1964 All Canadian Rabbinic Conference in Ottawa, Canada, on " Jews in the Soviet Union" (13, p.18).
00-04-1964 Symposium in Washington on "The Current Conditions of Soviet Jews" (7, P.34). April 5th and 6th 1964
04-04-1964 American Jewish Conference for Soviet Jewry established in Washington (7, p. 34).
29-04-1964 Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry created IN USA  (19, p. 156-161, site Jewish movements).
00-11-1964 Removal of Nikita Khrushchev from power. Leonid Brezhnev becomes ruler of the USSR .
00-12-1964  Canadian branch of "Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry" established by Irwin Cotler (13, p.20).
19-01-1965 Start of the full-scale U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.
08-09-1965 Arrest of Andrei Sinyavsky.
12-09-1965 Arrest of Yuly Daniel. The human rights movement comes to the surface.
05-12-1965 First demonstration of defenders of  human rights with the posters at Pushkin Square on Soviet Constitution Day.
00-00-1966  Israeli singer Geula Gil tours the USSR.
10-02-1966 Verdict in the case of Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuly Daniel - seven and five years imprisonment, respectively.
00-04-1966 Leadership Conference on "Jews in Russia" organized by the the Canadian Jewish Congress" under the chairmanship of Michael Garber (13. Pp. 21-22).
05-11-1966 Creation of the Leningrad organization (22, Hillel Butman).
03-12-1966 Press conference of Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin in Paris, where many questions posed on the topic of emigration. Responses of the premier propose the possibility of family reunification (13, p.24).
16-12-1966 Adoption of the UN General Assembly (resolution 2200 A) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Covenant is open for signatures by UN member states.
00-06-1967 Appeal of Boris Kochubievsky to Brezhnev with request to leave the USSR(13, p.26).
05-06-1967 Six-Day War commences and continues until June 10, 1967.
10-06-1967 USSR breaks off diplomatic relations with Israel after the Six Day War.
13-06-1967 Yaakov Kedmi submits a written appeal to the Supreme Soviet renouncing Soviet citizenship (22, Yaakov Kedmi).
05-11-1967 Demonstration of the Canadian branch of Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry at the Soviet Embassy (13, 27).
30-04-1968 "Chronicle of Current Events", first edition, is published by samizdat.
10-06-1968 Appeal of Gromyko and Andropov to the Politburo with a proposal to resume limited emigration (1, p. 62).
21-08-1968 The Soviet invasion into Czechoslovakia, suppression of the "Prague Spring".
25-08-1968 Demonstration of human rights defenders at Red Square against the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.
00-11-1968 Election of Richard Nixon as the new U.S. President.
00-12-1968 Arrest of Boris Kochubievsky in Kiev.
19-12-1968 Yaakov Kedmi's letter renouncing Soviet citizenship is published in the Washington Post.
00-01-1969 Lea and Boris Slovin, Dov Shperling emigrated from Riga to Israel.
19-01-1969 Yaakov Kedmi emigrated from Moscow to Israel.
26-02-1969 After Levi Eshkol's death, Golda Meir becomes Prime Minister of Israel .
00-05-1969 An armed confrontation between China and the USSR on Damansky Island.
13-05-1969 Boris Kochubievsky trial, May 13-16 in Kiev. Charged under Art. 187-1 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian Republic (similar to 190-1 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR) - slander with no intention of undermining the regime (16, p. 44-49). Sentence - 3 years imprisonment.
06-08-1969 Letter of 18 Georgian Jews to Israel and to the United Nations (8, p.17).
19-08-1969 Meeting of Shperling, Slovins and Kedmi with Shaul Avigur (13, p.29).
00-10-1969 The first public demonstration of students at Haifa Technion for Soviet Jewry involving Kedmi and Shperling (13, p.29-30).
19-10-1969 Meeting of Shperling, Slovins and Kedmi with Prime Minister Golda Meir (13, p.29).
27-10-1969 Meeting of Israeli students under the direction of Yona Yahav with Prime Minister Golda Meir and Ambassador Simcha Dinitz, the beginning of the open campaign for Soviet Jewry in Israel (13, p.30).
10-11-1969 Golda Meir reads on Israeli radio the appeal of eighteen Jewish families from Georgia (13, 31).
02-12-1969 Arrest of Lily Ontman in the Chernovtsi region for alleged "slander" expressed in five letters to the Soviet authorities (20, v.2).
24-12-1969 Arrest of Natalia Gorbanevsky , the founder of the "Chronicle of Current Events."
29-01-1970 Arrest of Yakov Suslensky in Bendery for letters to Soviet and foreign authorities (22).
00-02-1970 Trial of Lily Ontman in Chernovtsi Oblast court. Sentence - two years and six months imprisonment (20, v.2).
09-02-1970 Trial of the six students in Ryazan, 9-19 February (17, 21, p. 292-294).
12-02-1970 Arrest of Joseph Meshiner in Bendery (22).
00-03-1970 Yaakov Kedmi's 9 day hunger strike near the UN building protesting denial of  exit visas for his parents from the USSR. (13, p.31-32).
04-03-1970 Press-conference of the "state" Jews against Jewish emigration (Dragusky, Bystritskaya, Raikin, Minkin, etc.).
08-03-1970 Letter of protest "of 39" in connection with the press-conference of the "state"  Jews (22, Svechinsky).
06-04-1970 The Union of Councils for Soviet Jewry" is  created, an all-American independent organization
13-04-1970 Masha and Vladimir Slepak filed an application for exit visas to Israel(22).
05-05-1970 Yona Kochinsky from Kharkov sent a formal request for waiver of his Soviet citizenship (2).
15-06-1970 An article in Pravda about the arrest of the aircraft hijachers.
15-06-1970 The arrest of the attempted 16 plane hijackers. 
27-07-1970 The delegation of the National Council of Christian Churches in the USA and the American Jewish Committee did not receive permission to visit the Soviet Union, DM (11, p. 103).
04-08-1970 Boris Maftser and Aaron Shpielberg arrested in Riga,  (22).
20-09-1970 World Solidarity Day with the Jews of the Soviet Union. Demonstrations supporting Soviet Jewry took place in London, New York, Paris, Toronto and other cities around the world.
07-10-1970 The arrest of Ruth Alexandrovich in Riga (2).
14-10-1970 Search of Raiza Palatnik's apartment  (2).
14-10-1970 Arrest of Igor Borisov on charges of "hooliganism."
15-10-1970 Arrest of Mikhail Shepshelovich in Riga.
17-10-1970 Arrest of Yona Kochinsky on charges of disorderly conduct. Held for 20 days in a damp cell without trial (2).
00-11-1970 The Committee on Human Rights in the USSR, headed by Andrei Sakharov, Andrei Tverdokhlebov and Valery Chalidze, is established.
20-11-1970 Search of Raiza Palatnik's parents' apartment.
29-11-1970 About 70 Jews and three times as many KGB and police gathered at Rumbuli  (2)
01-12-1970 Arrest of of Raiza Palatnik in Odessa; intensive search in her apartment (2).
15-12-1970 First Leningrad trials, 15th-24th of December (18, p.354-355).
23-12-1970 The trial of Igor Borisov in the village Toksovo in the Leningrad region on December 23-24. Sentence - 3 years for "hooliganism" (20).
24-12-1970 Canadian branch of Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry protest for seven days  in front of the Soviet Mission against the cruel sentences meted out at the Leningrad trials . (13, P.34).
26-12-1970 Ten Sverdlovsk activists write a letter protesting against the cruel sentences meted out at the first Leningrad trials (author's archive).
30-12-1970 Massive protest in Paris with Jean-Paul Sartre's participation against harsh sentences in Leningrad (13, p. 36).
30-12-1970 Generalissimo Franco abolished the death penalty of Basque terrorists responsible for the deaths of several Spanish policemen (22).
31-12-1970 Cancellation of the death penalties at the First Leningrad process (13, p. 35).
00-00-1971 "Canadian Committee for Soviet Jewry " is founded (13). 1972
00-01-1971 18 Georgian families, who signed the first open collective letter to the UN and Israel, granted exit visas to Israel (2).
00-01-1971 The National Conference on Soviet Jewry is founded (7, p. 4).
00-01-1971 More than 200 Jews from Riga appealed to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR with the request for exit permits to Israel.
13-01-1971 Vitaly Svechinsky receives permission to leave  for Israel(22).
15-01-1971 The newspapers "L'Humanite" and "Unita" reported that there will no longer be anti-Zionist processes in the USSR (18, p.362).
19-01-1971 The first KGB interrogations of the aliya activists in the city of Sverdlovsk.
23-01-1971 An article by the Soviet news agency APN observer S. Beglov  "Fuhrers and Stormtroopers of Neoracism" is published in The New York Times.
30-01-1971 Pinchas Dubrov, author of the song "Let my people go", is beaten in a street of Moscow,  and hospitalized unconscious (2).
00-02-1971 Lazar Lubarsky (Rostov) is given a warning by the KGB  to cease activity, otherwise threatened with arrest (2).
02-02-1971 Vitaly Svechinsky arrives in Israel (22).
09-02-1971 Press-conference of the Soviet "state" Jews" in Brussels against the organizers of the World Conference on Soviet Jewry. Participated Zivs, Dragoonsky, Peller, Vidyasova and others (11).
10-02-1971 Grigori Feiglin received permission to emigrate from Riga to Israel, arrived on February 11th.
19-02-1971 Anti-Zionist press-conference of the "state" Jews in Brussels.
21-02-1971 The newspaper of the Sverdlovsk Regional Party Committee "Ural worker" published an article "Where is the ancestral land", directed against the Sverdlovsk activists Valery Kukui and Yuli Kosharovsky (aa).
22-02-1971 Meetings of condemnation of Jewish activists began in Sverdlovsk, based on the article in the "Ural worker".
23-02-1971 "The First World Conference on Soviet Jewry" is held 23-25 February in Brussels.   (13, p. 37).
24-02-1971 Presidium of the Conference in Brussels decided to reject Rabbi Kahana's right to participate in the conference (13, p. 38).
24-02-1971 Vladimir Slepak quoted at the Conference in Brussels that a group of 30 Jews arrived that day to the CPSU Central Committee and submitted an appeal to the Congress of the Communist Party demanding free emigration.
28-02-1971 The first public sit-down demonstration of 30 Jews in the Supreme Soviet. Protest against the refusal and persecution. Participated Gelfond, Slepak, Polsky, Orlov, Rosenblum and others (17).
00-03-1971 University of Toronto students in Canada, arrange telephone contact with refuseniks with help of Russian speaking Genya Intrator (13, p. 39).
00-03-1971 The trial of Haim Rennert in Chernovtsi for "attempting to bribe" workers of OVIR.
01-03-1971 Press-conference of the "state" Jews in Brussels after the "First World Conference on Soviet Jewry." Participated Zivs, Dragoonsky, Vidyasova and others (11).
01-03-1971 The second anti-Zionist press-conference of the "state" Jews in Brussels.
02-03-1971  Assambly condemning Valery Kukui at his job adopted a resolution calling for bringing him to trial (aa).
10-03-1971 Kosharovsky, Kukui, Aks, Rabinovich, Voytovetsky and others (ten families) applied for exit visas to Israel in Sverdlovsk (aa).
10-03-1971 146 Jews from eight cities of the USSR, 57 of them are from Latvia, began a hunger-strike at the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR against the "forcible confinement of Jews in the USSR." Later they were joined by 69 Jews from Lithuania and 20 Jews from Moscow (35).
11-03-1971 In continuation of the hunger-strike protest Jews staged a demonstration at the Ministry of Internal Affairs and were received by the Minister of Internal Affairs Nikolay Shchelokov (35).
17-03-1971 Demonstration of 80 Jews in Moscow in the waiting room of the CPSU Central Committee, demanding freedom of exit from the USSR and more transparent procedures for consideration of appeals.
17-03-1971 The first administrative arest of Yuli Kosharovsky in Sverdlovsk. Sentenced to 15 days and then another 12 days for a hunger-strike in the chamber(aa).
20-03-1971 Arrest of Valery Kukui in Sverdlovsk. Charged under Article 190-1 (aa).
23-03-1971 Expulsion of Yuli Kosharovsky from the postgraduate courses and dismissal from job (aa).
30-03-1971 XXIV Congress of the CPSU from 30 March to 9 April (3).
00-05-1971 In response to the arrest of Raise Palatnik in Odessa  the Women's Campaign for Soviet Jewry  "the 35's" is  founded in England.
00-05-1971 The "Women's Committee for Soviet Jewry"is founded at the largest international women's organization "Hadassah".
11-05-1971 The second process in Leningrad, 9 defendants. Held 11-20 May (18, p. 363-364).
11-05-1971 Protest rally in Ottawa, Canada, against the cruel sentences in Leningrad, with participation of a member of the Canadian government external affairs Minister Mitchell Sharpe (13).  
12-05-1971 An article "In the Leningrad City Court" in the newspaper "Leningradskaya Pravda " against the defendants in the Second Leningrad trial, reprinted the next day by "Izvestia" and "Soviet Russia".
16-05-1971 Visit of Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in Moscow 16-21 May (1913, p. 39-41).
24-05-1971  Process in Riga, 4 defendants. Held May 24-27 at the club "Ziemeļblāzma" in the distant suburb of Riga (18, p. 367).
28-05-1971 An article "Open trial in Riga" in "Komsomolskaya Pravda", reprinted on the following day in the newspaper "Izvestia".
14-06-1971 Hunger-strike of Jews from Baltic Republics in the Central Telegraph 14-24 June. 
15-06-1971 Trial of Valery Kukui in the building of the Sverdlovsk Regional Court on June 15-16. Sentence - three years imprisonment (aa, 9, p. 692).
21-06-1971 Trials in Kishinev, 9 defendants. Held 21-30 June (18, p.367).
22-06-1971 The trial of Raise Palatnik, Odessa. Sentence - 2 years imprisonment (17)  
22-06-1971 32 Jews from Riga, Vilnius and Kaunas held a hunger-strike at the Central Telegraph Office in Moscow (2).
23-06-1971 50 Jews in Riga held a hunger-strike at the Central Telegraph Office in Riga (2). 
24-06-1971 45 Jews in Vilnius held a hunger-strike at the Central Telegraph Office in Vilnius (2). 
00-07-1971 Letter from Sverdlovsk activists to Podgorny and the Supreme Court of the RSFSR in defense of Kukui (aa).
12-07-1971 Hunger-strike Jews of Georgia in the Central Telegraph Office July 12-15.  
16-07-1971 Sakharov's letter to the Supreme Soviet in defense of Kukui (20).
18-07-1971 Letter from Sverdlovsk activists to the newspaper "Izvestia" on wrongdoing in the case of Kukui (20).
20-07-1971 The Court of Cassation on the Second Leningrad process. The sentence remains unchanged (20).
00-08-1971 Demonstration of 12 women in the Aeroflot representative office in Montreal (13, p. 40).
10-08-1971 Arrest of Doctor Boris Azernikov (Yankelzon) in Leningrad (2).
00-09-1971 Announcement of the upcoming visit of Kosygin in Canada (13, p. 40).
04-09-1971 The first annual meeting of the Union of Councils for Soviet Jewry in Philadelphia (September 4-6).
19-09-1971 Trial in Samarkand of Amelia Trachtenberg, aspired to go to Israel. Sentence - three years imprisonment (2).
20-09-1971 Group visit of activists to the CPSU Central Committee, reception by the head of the department of administrative departments Albert Ivanov.
06-10-1971 Trial of Boris Azernikov (Yankelzon), 6-7 October, in the premises of the Leningrad City Court. Sentence - 3.5 years of imprisonment in the colony (2).
07-10-1971 Release of Ruth Alexandrovich from prison (2).
18-10-1971 Premier Kosygin's visit to Canada, 18-26 October (1913, p. 43).
25-10-1971 Demonstration of 6000 Canadian Jews for Soviet Jewry on the last day of Kosygin's visit (13, p. 45).
00-12-1971 Conference in Moscow on the topic "Racism - the ideology of imperialism, the enemy of social progress" (1, p. 128).
16-12-1971 Congressman Scheuer visits USSR. The first meeting of the American congressman with refuseniks at the apartment of Alexander Lerner (22).
18-12-1971 An article in "Pravda" by academician Mark Mitin "Zionism - a kind of chauvinism and racism".
31-12-1971 Aliya to Israel in  1971 - 13,711. First noshrim ( "drop-outs"  - those who chose not to emigrate to Israel but to other countries. - Editor's note) - 58 people for the year.

List of sources 
to the chronology of events


Employed abbreviations: a.a. - the archive of the author; DM - date of a message (not of an event); t.m.- a telephone message from Moscow in real time.
Other sources of information are listed below. Their numbers are given in the chronology in parentheses.

  1. Boris Morozov, "Jewish Emigration in the light of new documents," Cummings Center, Tel Aviv University "," TSHSD, 1998.
  2. Ann Shenkar, Newsletter "Actions Committee," (English).
  3. "Wikipedia", http://ru.wikipedia.org .
  4. "Jewish electronic encyclopedia" http://www.eleven.co.il.
  5. Concise Jewish Encyclopedia, tom.8, "Society for the Exploration of the Jewish community", Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 1996.
  6. Jewish Encyclopedia, CD-Rom Edition
  7. Friedman, Murray and Chernin, Albert, Editors, "A Second Exodus, The American Movement to Free Soviet Jews", Hanover, Brandeis University Press, 1999.
  8. Gilbert, Martin, "Shcharansky, Hero of Our Time", London, Macmillan London Limited, 1986.
  9. Levin, Nora, "The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917, Paradox of Survival", Volume I, Volume II, New York and London, New York University Press, 1988.
  10. Prital David, "Jews of the FSU in Israel and Diaspora".
  11. Soviet Jewish Affairs, Chronicle of Events, Sources are Western Press reports, unless specifically stated.
  12. Rosenfeld Nancy "Unfinished Journey".
  13. Interview.
  14. Washington Post.
  15. Wurtman Enid, Articles in "Jerusalem Post" and audiocassettes of telephone talks with refuseniks in Russia.
  16. Schroeter, Leonard, "The Last Exodus", Jerusalem, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Jerusalem, 1974.
  17. Insight, 70 Years of Soviet Union.
  18. Nehemia Levanon, Code Nativ, Am Oved, 1995, Hebrew.
  19. Yuli Kosharovsky, "We are once again the Jews", Volume 1, 2007.
  20. "Anti-Jewish processes in the Soviet Union 1969-1971 years", edition of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Centre for Research of East European Jewry in 1979.
  21. Pinkus, Benjamin, National Revival, Heritage Center, Ben-Gurion, 1993, Hebrew.
  22. Interview of the author.
  23. "A collection of letters, petitions and appeals", Center for the Study of East European Jewry. 
  24. Shindler, Colin, "Exit Visa, Détente, Human Rights and the Jewish Emigration Movement in the USSR", London, Bachman and Turner, 1978.
  25. Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry. Newsletter.
  26. Gilbert, Martin, "The Jews of Hope, The Plight of Soviet Jewry Today", London, Macmillan London Limited, 1984.
  27. Fain, Benjamin, "Faith and Reason", Mahanaim, Jerusalem 2007.
  28. Bulletin UCSJ "Alert".
  29. Lerner, Alexander, "Change of Heart", Minneapolis, Lerner Publication Company, Rehovot, Balaban Publishers, 1992.
  30. Lein, Evgeny "Lest we forget".
  31. Israel Public Council for Soviet Jewry, Israel, Profile.
  32. Gilbert, Martin, "The Jews of Hope, The Plight of Soviet Jewry Today" London, Macmillian London Limited, 1984.
  33. Joel L. Lebowitz, James S. Langer, William I. Glaberson, Editors, "Fourth International conference on collective fenomena", Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Published by The New York Academy of Science, ANYAA9 337, 1-223, 1980.
  34. Joel L. Lebowitz, Editor, "Fourth International conference on collective fenomena", Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Published by The New York Academy of Science, ANYAA9 373, 1-233, 1981.
  35. David Zilberman, "Hunger-strike and demonstration of Soviet Jews in Moscow on March 10-11, 1971", Diary of a demonstrator, The Legend of the exodus from Russia, Nazareth Elit, Israel, 1971.
  36. Inna Axelrod-Rubin "Life is like life”, memories, Jerusalem 2006.

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