From the History of the Jewish Movement

Database Recollections Our
of Zion
From the History of
the Jewish Movement
What Was Written
about Us by the Press
Helped Us
Our Photo
Chronicle In Memoriam Write
to Us

Let My People Go.
Medallions with the names of prisoners of conscience
By Dr. Vladimir Bernshtam
of events
of events
of events
of events
of events
of events
The Jews of Struggle
By Michael Beizer
“I Don’t Know
Whom to Thank”
By Michael Beizer
Jewish Movement in USSR:
what was its essence?
By Michael Beizer
By Dina Beilin
Hijacking Their Way
Out of Tyranny
By Gal Beckerman
An Exodus in our Time
By Louis Rosenblum
Andropov and the Jews.
by Martin Gilbert
Jacob Birnbaum and Soviet Jews.
by Yossi Klein Halevi. Part 1
Jacob Birnbaum and Soviet Jews.
by Yossi Klein Halevi. Part 2

Chronology of events
of the Zionist movement in the Soviet Union

Compiled by Yuli Kosharovsky and Enid Wurtman


Date Event
15-01-1977 Avner Zavurov, 23, a building construction worker from Shakbrisabz, is sentenced to three years on charges of living in an unauthorized place without an identity card; parasitism and hooliganism. (D.M.) (11 p.104)
20-01-1977 In the U.S., Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as the 39th president
22-01-1977 Soviet television presents one hour long   anti-Zionist documentary "Traders of Souls", which specifies the names and addresses of Vladimir Slepak, Yosef Begun, Anatoly Sharansky and Yuli Kosharovsky. (11, p. 104). 
23-01-1977 An article in Izvestia claims that the invitations from Israel are fake.
29-01-1977 Article in the magazine Ogoniok - "Spy paths of Zionism" (8, p. 165).
31-01-1977 Over 2000 members of the medical profession from the U.S. and Europe sign an appeal in behalf of Dr. Mikhail Stern (11, p. 104).
00-02-1977 Symposium organizers have prepared a "White Paper" on symposium preparation and its disruption by the authorities (27, p. 287).
02-02-1977 Begun, Kosharovsky, Slepak and Sharansky address the court with a lawsuit against TV and film directors of "The Traders of Souls" for defamatory statements made against them in the film. (8, p. 165).
03-02-1977 Arrest of Alexander Ginzburg, a member of the “Moscow Helsinki Group” (8, p. 165).
05-02-1977 President Carter sent a letter to Academician Sakharov. (11, p. 105)
09-02-1977 Arrest of Yuri Orlov, head of the “Moscow Helsinki Group”.
15.02.1977 Ilya Rubin, the former editor of the samizdat journal, "Jews in the USSR", dies in Israel. (D.M.) (11, p. 105).
21-02-1977 Demonstraion of the 60 activists in Moscow at the Supreme Soviet. (8, p.166).
25-02-1977 77 activists from the 9 cities issue an open letter of protest against the pogrom atmosphere created by the presentation of the film "The Traders of Souls" and subsequent articles in the press.
01-03-1977 The U.S. Senate adopts resolution condemning Soviet  persecution of Jews and others seeking to emigrate by 91-0. (11, p. 87).
03-03-1977 The first arrest of Yosef Begun for “parasitism” (22, Yosef Begun).
04-03-1977  Izvestia publishes a letter by Sanya Lipavsky alleging links between  leading refuseniks and the CIA including Vitaly Rubin , Mark Azbel, Alexander Lerner and Anatoly Shcharansky.
06-03-1977 Apartment of Alexander Lerner was searched.
11-03-1977 Documentary "The Traders of Souls" was again shown on Moscow television (9, p. 788).
14-03-1977 Dr. M. Stern is released from labor camp prior to the end of his term.. He is due to arrive in Israel at July 3rd. (D.M.) (11, p. 87).
15-03-1977 Jewish activist Anatoly Sharansky, named in Lipavsky letter published in Izvestia, is arrested in Moscow. (11, p. 87)
17-03-1977 A women's conference in behalf of Soviet Jewry is held in Mexico. (11, p. 87).
17-03-1977 Student demonstrations protesting the arrest of Anatoly Sharansky in New York, Ottawa and London (25). 
19-03-1977 A National Emergency Leadership Conference on behalf of Soviet Jewry takes place in New York (11 , p. 87).
21-03-1977 10 thousand people with the participation of Golda Meir hold demonstration in Israel in protest against the arrest of Anatoly Sharansky.
24-03-1977 The House of Representatives passed a resolution condemning the Soviet harassment of Jews and others who wish to emigrate. The results of the vote on the resolution: in favor – 400; opposed - 2 (11, p. 87)
26-03-1977 U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance presented the Soviet authorities with a list of 700 refuseniks during a visit to Moscow, (11, p. 87).
07-04-1977 International symposium of scientists-refuseniks was held on the fifth anniversary of the founding of the physics seminar. (22, Mark Azbel).
17-04-1977 About 150 Jews gathered at the memorial ceremony in Minsk in remembrance of the Holocaust. Meeting addressed by Colonel Lev Ovsischer. (11, 88).
17-04-1977 Several thousand take part in London demonstration in support of Anatoly Sharansky (11, 88).
17-04-1977 A special three-day (April 17th – 20th) session marks the anniversary of the Moscow Jewish Scientists Seminar led by Mark Azbel.  (11, 88).
19-04-1977 LICA, the International League against racism and antisemitism organized in France a colloquium on Soviet Jewish situation after the Helsinki Final Act. (11, 88).
18-04-1977 American tourists, Mr. and Mrs. A. Silvers were deported from Moscow after "Zionist and anti-Soviet propaganda" is found in their luggage. (11, 88)
22-04-1977 Prisoner of Zion, Alexander Feldman is reported to have been released after serving three years. (11, 88)
22-04-1977 Parliamentary representatives from 14 European countries decide in Paris to form a permanent European committee in support of Soviet Jews. (11, p. 98).
27-04-1977 Over 50 clergymen, representing the Church of England, Roman Catholic Church, Baptists and other Christian denominations, attend a conference in London on behalf of Soviet Jews. (11, 88).  
01-05-1977 200,000 take part in New York solidarity demonstration supporting Soviet Jewry.  (11, 88).
08-05-1977 150 Jews picnic in the woods outside Moscow in celebration of Lag ba-Omer. (11, p.88).
09-05-1977 Col. Lev Ovsischer addresses a meeting of 5000 in Minsk held near the grave of several thousand Jews murdered by the Nazis. (11, 88).
17-05-1977 Likud, headed by Menachem Begin, wins the election in Israel (11, 88).
17-05-1977 A letter of Leonid Tsipin against refuseniks is published in the newspaper "Evening Moscow
24-05-1977 Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Nikolai Podgorny is dropped  from the Politburo. Leonid Brezhnev becomes  Chairman of the Supreme Soviet. (11, 88). 
01-06-1977 Moscow activist Yosef Begun, a 45 year old electronics engineer, is sentenced to two years internal exile on charges of parasitism. (11, 88).
05-06-1977 Press-conference of Sanya Lipavsky at the newspaper Izvestia publishing house (8, p. 193).
13-06-1977 U.S. National Conference on Soviet Jewry, organizes a nation-wide assembly on June 13th and 14th to brief communities about the “deteriorating situation” in the USSR. (11, 88).
20-06-1977 Ida Nudel indicted for demonstration with a placard on the balcony of her house (22, Ida Nudel).
21-06-1977 Seven Kiev Jews, including Vladimir Kislik, renounce Soviet citizenship. (D.M.) (11, 88).
22-06-1977 Yacov Vinarov, 23, is released from labor camp after serving two years out of a three year sentence for “evasion of military service”. (D.M.) (11, 88).
23-06-1977 Professor Benjamin Fain, a leading aliya activist, receives permission to emigrate to Israel (11, 88).
01-07-1977 Belgian tourist Anton Pype, who was sentenced on March 25th, 1977 to five years imprisonment for distributing leaflets in Leningrad, is expelled from the USSR .(11, p. 89).
11-07-1977 150 persons from 14 countries attend a special three day conference in Oxford in honor of Academician B. Levich.  (11, p. 89).
14-07-1977 The U.S. Senate adopted a resolution expressing concern over the harassment of Anatoly Sharansky, Yuri Orlov and others, "who sought to monitor compliance of the situation in the USSR with the Helsinki accords". (D.M.) (11, p. 89).
11-08-1977 The 25th anniversary of the execution of the Soviet Jewish writers is commemorated in London, New York and elsewhere. (D.M.) (11, p. 89). 
00-09-1977 Yuli Kosharovsky organizes a seminar of Hebrew teachers in Moscow (aa).
01-09-1977 Moscow hosts a conference on “ Law, International Cooperation,  and Détente”. The conference was attended by representatives of 40 countries. (11, p. 103)
06-09-1977 Israeli publishers are represented in the First Moscow International Book Fair, which lasts from 6th to 15th of September (11, p. 103).
09-09-1977 Former U.S. representative to the UN Arthur Goldberg was appointed head of U.S. delegation at the "Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe" in Belgrade. (11, p. 103)
14-09-1977 Soviet Jewish mathematician Professor Gelfand is made an honorary member of the British Royal Society. (D.M.) (11, p. 103).
15-09-1977 Felix Kandel-Kamov, 44, well-known aliya activist, receives permission to emigrate to Israel. (11, p. 103)
16-09-1977 French student Jean-Jacques Paul, 22, is expelled from USSR for allegedly distributing anti-Soviet leaflets in Tbilisi. (11, p. 103-104)
21-09-1977 USSR and Great Britain sign an agreement on scientific cooperation. (11, p. 104)
04-10-1977 "CSCE conference on monitoring the Implementation of the Helsinki Accords" opens in Belgrade (11, p. 102).
14-10-1977 115 Soviet Jews from the 9 cities, in an open letter to the Belgrade conference accuse the Soviet authorities of trying to stamp out Jewish culture and reduce emigration to Israel. (D.M.) (11, p. 104)
17-10-1977 The anti-Zionist/antisemitic documentary "Traders of Souls" is shown on Kiev television. This film was originally shown on Moscow TV on Jan. 22nd, 1977. (11, p.104).
18-10-1977 USSR denies allegations by U.S. Congressmen that they attempt to exclude Israel from the Moscow Olympics. (D.M.) (11, p. 102). 
21-10-1977 Jewish activist Alexander Silnitsky is released from prison on completion of  his two-year sentence. (11, p. 104)
27-10-1977 Mikhail Kornblit, sentenced to 7 years imprisonment at the second Leningrad trial in May 1971, is released. (D.M.) (11, p. 104)
30-10-1977 The 36th anniversary of the massacre of Kaunas Jews is commemorated by a march and meeting at the Ninth Fort. (11, p. 104)
00-11-1977 Brailovsky was questioned over 12 hours in connection with Sharansky's case (25).
08-11-1977 British and American leaders, including MPs Jeremy Thorpe and Winston Churchill Jr., appeal to Brezhnev over Sharansky case (11, p. 104).
09-11-1977 At Belgrade conference U.S. representative Arthur Goldberg accuses the Soviet Union of imprisoning and persecuting Anatoly Sharansky, Yuri Orlov and Alexander Ginsberg, for attempting to monitor Soviet compliance with the Final Act.  (11, p. 102).
19-11-1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat came to Israel in historic visit. The visit lasted from 19th to 21th of November 1977. (11, p. 103)
25-11-1977 The Second International Sakharov Hearing on Human Rights opens in Rome; the first took place in Copenhagen in 1975. (11, p. 104). 
04-12-1977 Western Jewish organizations hold a “world solidarity week” with Soviet Jewry from December 4th – 11th 1977. (11, p. 104).
08-12-1977 A mock trial publicizing the plight of Anatoly Sharansky was held in London. ( 11, p. 104)
08-12-1977 U.S. Jewish leaders discuss case of Anatoly Sharansky with Vice-President Mondale in Denver, Colorado. (11, p. 104).
15-12-1977 A delegation of Roman Catholic, Protestant and Jewish leaders, representing U.S. Interreligious Task Force on Soviet Jewry, visits Belgrade.  (11, p. 104).
17-12-1977 Academician Sakharov is refused permission to visit  Prisoner of Zion Edward Kuznetsov in the  Potma labor camp (11, p. 104) 
13-01-1978 Edward Kuznetsov began a hunger strike in a Potma camp (11, p. 104).
20-01-1978 Appeal of 100 Jewish activists to the heads of State, signatories of the "Final Act" in Helsinki.
22-01-1978 A European conference of Jewish Communities in support of Soviet Jews takes place in Paris (11, p. 105).
29-01-1978 2000 people demonstrate in Paris on behalf of Anatoly Sharansky (11, p. 105).
01-02-1978 A group of 12 Jewish women-refuseniks meet Soviet emigration officials, including Central Committee member Albert Ivanov. (11 , p. 105).
15-02-1978 The Soviet Consulate in London accepts visa application by Sylva Zalmanson to visit her imprisoned husband, Edward Kuznetsov. (11, p. 105).
24-02-1978 Yosef Begun, sentenced in June to exile in Siberia for parasitism, is released. (D.M.) (11, p.105)
03-03-1978 Yakov Kandinov, a dentist from Tashkent, is arrested while making final preparations to leave with his family for Israel. He is later  sentenced to 8 years in prison on charges of bribery. (11, p. 84)
06-03-1978 A session of the Presidium of the Brussels Conference on Soviet Jewry takes place in Jerusalem on March 6th – 7th. (11, p. 84).
06-03-1978 A seminar on behalf of Soviet Jewry takes place at Kibbutz Ma'ale Ha’hamisha. (11, p. 84)
08-03-1978 A demonstration of women-refuseniks near the Lenin Library on International Women's Day is dispersed by police. The demonstration was organized by a women's group led by Irina Gildengorn (Los Angeles Times, 09.03.1978).
10-03-1978 Yuli Kosharovsky appeals to Brezhnev on the seventh anniversary of the denial of his exit visa lodging a protest against unlawful obstacles to the departure of his family.  (aa).
10-03-1978 1500 people, mainly members of youth organizations, take part in the annual torchlight procession, organized by the "35’s", Women’s Campaign for Soviet Jewry in Britain (11, p. 84). 
12-03-1978 Refusenik Dina Beilina of Moscow, who has waited for a permit for 6 years, is allowed to emigrate with her family to Israel.
   (22, Dina Beilin ).
17-03-1978 136 activists from Moscow and other Soviet cities sign a petition calling for the release of Anatoly Sharansky arrested March 15th 1977.  (11, p. 84).
17-03-1978 Yosef Begun is released from his first exile on completion of the term. (22, Yosef Begun )
21-03-1978 The situation of Soviet Jewry is discussed at the session of the  Political Affairs Committee  of the European Parliament in Brussels on March 21st and 22nd (11, p. 84).
26-03-1978 The Beilin family arrives in Israel. ( 22, Dina Beilin).
28-03-1978 A telegram in behalf of activist Vladimir Kislik of Kiev, signed by 150 French scientists, is sent to 16 Soviet officials in the USSR. (11, p. 84).
29-03-1978 Grigory Goldstein, 47 year old physicist and activist from Tbilisi,, is sentenced in Georgia to 1 year's imprisonment for  “parasitism”. (11, p. 84).
00-04-1978 Refusenik Yosef Ahs receives an exit visa to Israel. (25)
00-04-1978 In April 1978 neshira (drop-outs) reached 61% of the total number of Jews who emigrated from the USSR.
14-04-1978 Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry staged a demonstration outside the Soviet Embassy in Washington. The demonstration was attended by members of the U.S. Congress. (25).
21-04-1979 The first two issues of a new samizdat journal Evreyskaya mysl (Jewish Thought), circulate in the USSR. The journal’s aim is to acquaint readers with philosophical, historical and religious subjects. (D.M.) (11, p. 85)
10-05-1978 24 women-refuseniks (Khasina, Nudel, Elinson, and others) hold sit-in  demonstration in the Supreme Soviet (22, Natalia Khasin).
11-05-1978 24 women-refuseniks stagea sit-in demonstration in Moscow OVIR, the emigration office.  (11, p. 85).
12-05-1978 Demonstration of women-refuseniks with yellow stars in the Supreme Soviet (22, Natalia Hasin).
14-05-1978 250 refuseniks celebrated Israel Independence Day in Ovrazhki.
14-05-1978 Arrest of Alexander Podrabinek.
17-05-1978 Yosef Begun was arrested once again, this time on charges of violating passport regulations. He returned from exile after his first arrest on March 17th this year and enjoyed freedom for only two months. (22, Yosef Begun).
18-05-1978 Moscow dissident Yuri Orlov is sentenced to 7 years imprisonment and  five years  exile (11, p. 85).
23-05-1978 Demonstration of six women with the request to allow their families to emigrate to Israel. Ida Nudel, Natasha Khasin, Rosa Ioffe were among participants in the demonstration (22, Natalia Khasin).
25-05-1978 24 women-refuseniks send a letter to the Supreme Soviet, declaring their intention to hold a demonstration on June 1st, International Children's Day with the participation of their children.
26-05-1978 Demonstration of Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry in front of the UN to demand that the Soviet Union “cease the use of antisemitism as an ideological weapon". (25)
28-05-1978 Dry hunger strike of Prisoner of Zion Semion Gluzman. (25 )
31-05-1978 Arrest of Simon Shnirman due to "evasion of military service". He was subsequently sentenced to 2.5 years of imprisonment (25).
01-06-1978 Arrest of Ida Nudel for hoisting on the balcony of her apartment a poster "KGB, give me my visa". Later she was released pending her trial, which sentenced her to four years of exile. (22, Ida Nudel)
01-06-1978 Demonstration of women with children at several apartments in Moscow on the International Children's Day. Posters were placed on balconies (8, p. 227).
01-06-1978 Arrest of Vladimir and Maria Slepak for hoisting on their balcony a poster "Let us reunite with our children in Israel." Maria Slepak was released two days later on health grounds pending trial. (22, Vladimir Slepak and Maria Slepak).
15-06-1978 Israel Zalmanson is released upon completion of his 8 year sentence. (11, p. 85)
19-06-1978 Prison sentence of Sender Levinson is reduced from 6 to 4 years. (D.M.) (11, p. 85)
21-06-1978 The trial of Vladimir Slepak, Moscow, on charges of "malicious hooliganism." His sentence - 5 years internal exile. (8, p. 228)
21-06-1978 The trial of Ida Nudel, Moscow, on charges of "malicious hooliganism." Her sentence - 4 years internal exile (8, p. 227).
26-06-1978 A “round table” discussion on Soviet antisemitism was held in Rome under the sponsorship of the Union of Jewish Lawyers in Italy. (11, p. 85)
26-06-1978 Trial of Maria Slepak. Her sentence - three years on probation. (11, p. 85)
27-06-1978 The trial of Simon Shnirman on charges of evading military service. His sentence - 2.5 years imprisonment. (25)
10-07-1978 The trial of Anatoly Sharansky in Moscow. The trial lasted from July 10th to 14th. The sentence - 13 years imprisonment, 3 years in jail, and 10 years in strict regime labor camp. (11, p. 86).
14-07-1978 Moscow dissident Alexandr Ginzburg is sentenced to 8 years imprisonment in a hard labor camp for anti-Soviet activities and propaganda. (11, p. 86) Sentence of:  Viktor Petkus, Chairman of the Lithuanian Helsinki Group - 10 years imprisonment, as "an agent of  foreign intelligence"; A. Filatov - the death penalty.
15-07-1978 A joint appeal by Moscow, Lithuanian and Georgian Helsinki Groups against the wave of litigation. Among the signatories of the appeal Elena Bonner, Sophia Kallistratova, Naum Meiman, Isai Goldstein, Eitan Finkelstein. (8, p. 279)
24-07-1978 Time magazine came out with a portrait of Sharansky on the cover against the backdrop of crumbling of the word "detente". On the same day this picture appears on the cover of Newsweek.
08-08-1978 Britain’s second largest trade union, Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers, suspended indefinitely mutual exchange visits with Soviet trade union delegations in connection with human rights trials in the Soviet Union. (11, p. 86) 
10-08-1978 The annual Assembly of the American Bar Association condemns Soviet harassment of Jews and other Soviet citizens who “attempt to exercise their basic human rights as guaranteed by international legal instruments and Soviet Law”.  (11, p. 86)
16-08-1978 Israel Zalmanson, released on June 15th from a labor camp, arrives in Israel. (11, p. 86)
16-08-1978 30 year old Kishinev refusenik Michael Roiz, a radio engineer, is reported to have been sentenced to one year imprisonment for draft evasion. (11, p. 86)
18-08-1978 Alexander Podrabinek, 25 year old Jewish ambulance driver, who collected records of Soviet psychiatric abuse, is sentenced to five years internal exile for "defaming the Soviet State". (D.M.) (11, p. 86)
23-08-1978 Chief Rabbi of Denmark Bent Melchior is refused an entrance visa to the USSR. (11, p. 86)
00-09-1978 The meeting of the “Presidium of the Brussels Conference." Issues for discussion: The Olympics, neshira (drop-outs), Prisoners of Zion and harassment of aliya activists in the USSR. 
18-09-1978 Camp David agreement signed by U.S., Egypt, and Israel. (11, p. 96)
00-10-1978 Anatoly Sharansky’s mother, Ida Milgrom appeals to Brezhnev in protest against the illegal persecution of her family.
00-10-1978 Ida Nudel was exiled to Krivosheino, where she is surrounded by a hostile population (22 Ida Nudel).
00-10-1978 Moscow seminars: physics (Brailovsky), humanities (Mai), cybernetics (Lerner), Hebrew teachers (Kosharovsky), on Judaism (Rosenstein) and Talmud (Essas) re-opened.
03-10-1978 Yosef Begun declares a hunger strike in a Magadan labor camp (25).
27-10-1978 Lev Roitburd, 42 year old aeronautical engineer from Odessa, a former prisoner of Zion, is granted permission to emigrate to Israel. He was jailed for two years in July 1975.  (11 , p.97)
15-11-1978 Twenty-two Moscow Jewish women seeking to emigrate have separate meetings with Deputy Interior Minister B. Shumilin. (11, p. 97)
15-11-1978 The European Parliament adopts a resolution condemning anti-semitism in the USSR. (11, p. 97)
04-12-1978 The seventh session of the Soviet-US Joint Trade Commission takes place in Moscow on December 4th-5th. (11, p. 97). 
08-12-1978 Academician Benjamin Levich, a refusenik from 1971, arrives in Israel. (11, 97)
21-12-1978 The apartment of Victor Brailovsky, editor of "The Jews in the USSR", was searched (25).
27-12-1978 “Third International Conference on collective phenomena" based on the scientists-refuseniks "Seminar on collective phenomena" was opened. About 30 papers, among them 10 – from abroad were presented to the conference, which lasted three days. According to the results of the conference the New York Academy of Sciences issued a compilation of reports, placed in 337 volume of the Academy annals (33).  
30-12-1978 24 Jews staged a demonstration of solidarity with the Prisoners of Zion outside the Lenin Library at the day of 8th anniversary of the First Leningrad trial. (25)

List of sources 
to the chronology of events

Employed abbreviations: a.a. - the archive of the author; DM - date of a message (not of an event); t.m.- a telephone message from Moscow in real time.
Other sources of information are listed below. Their numbers are given in the chronology in parentheses.

  1. Boris Morozov, "Jewish Emigration in the light of new documents," Cummings Center, Tel Aviv University "," TSHSD, 1998.
  2. Ann Shenkar, Newsletter "Actions Committee," (English).
  3. "Wikipedia", .
  4. "Jewish electronic encyclopedia"
  5. Concise Jewish Encyclopedia, tom.8, "Society for the Exploration of the Jewish community", Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 1996.
  6. Jewish Encyclopedia, CD-Rom Edition
  7. Friedman, Murray and Chernin, Albert, Editors, "A Second Exodus, The American Movement to Free Soviet Jews", Hanover, Brandeis University Press, 1999.
  8. Gilbert, Martin, "Shcharansky, Hero of Our Time", London, Macmillan London Limited, 1986.
  9. Levin, Nora, "The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917, Paradox of Survival", Volume I, Volume II, New York and London, New York University Press, 1988.
  10. Prital David, "Jews of the FSU in Israel and Diaspora".
  11. Soviet Jewish Affairs, Chronicle of Events, Sources are Western Press reports, unless specifically stated.
  12. Rosenfeld Nancy "Unfinished Journey".
  13. Interview.
  14. Washington Post.
  15. Wurtman Enid, Articles in "Jerusalem Post" and audiocassettes of telephone talks with refuseniks in Russia.
  16. Schroeter, Leonard, "The Last Exodus", Jerusalem, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Jerusalem, 1974.
  17. Insight, 70 Years of Soviet Union.
  18. Nehemia Levanon, Code Nativ, Am Oved, 1995, Hebrew.
  19. Yuli Kosharovsky, "We are once again the Jews", Volume 1, 2007.
  20. "Anti-Jewish processes in the Soviet Union 1969-1971 years", edition of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Centre for Research of East European Jewry in 1979.
  21. Pinkus, Benjamin, National Revival, Heritage Center, Ben-Gurion, 1993, Hebrew.
  22. Interview of the author.
  23. "A collection of letters, petitions and appeals", Center for the Study of East European Jewry. 
  24. Shindler, Colin, "Exit Visa, Détente, Human Rights and the Jewish Emigration Movement in the USSR", London, Bachman and Turner, 1978.
  25. Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry. Newsletter.
  26. Gilbert, Martin, "The Jews of Hope, The Plight of Soviet Jewry Today", London, Macmillan London Limited, 1984.
  27. Fain, Benjamin, "Faith and Reason", Mahanaim, Jerusalem 2007.
  28. Bulletin UCSJ "Alert".
  29. Lerner, Alexander, "Change of Heart", Minneapolis, Lerner Publication Company, Rehovot, Balaban Publishers, 1992.
  30. Lein, Evgeny "Lest we forget".
  31. Israel Public Council for Soviet Jewry, Israel, Profile.
  32. Gilbert, Martin, "The Jews of Hope, The Plight of Soviet Jewry Today" London, Macmillian London Limited, 1984.
  33. Joel L. Lebowitz, James S. Langer, William I. Glaberson, Editors, "Fourth International conference on collective fenomena", Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Published by The New York Academy of Science, ANYAA9 337, 1-223, 1980.
  34. Joel L. Lebowitz, Editor, "Fourth International conference on collective fenomena", Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Published by The New York Academy of Science, ANYAA9 373, 1-233, 1981.
  35. David Zilberman, "Hunger-strike and demonstration of Soviet Jews in Moscow on March 10-11, 1971", Diary of a demonstrator, The Legend of the exodus from Russia, Nazareth Elit, Israel, 1971.
  36. Inna Axelrod-Rubin "Life is like life”, memories, Jerusalem 2006.

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