From the History of the Jewish Movement

Database Recollections Our
of Zion
From the History of
the Jewish Movement
What Was Written
about Us by the Press
Helped Us
Our Photo
Chronicle Write
to Us

Let My People Go.
Medallions with the names of prisoners of conscience
By Dr. Vladimir Bernshtam
of events
of events
of events
of events
of events
of events
The Jews of Struggle
By Michael Beizer
“I Don’t Know
Whom to Thank”
By Michael Beizer
Jewish Movement in USSR:
what was its essence?
By Michael Beizer
By Dina Beilin
Hijacking Their Way
Out of Tyranny
By Gal Beckerman
An Exodus in our Time
By Louis Rosenblum
Andropov and the Jews.
by Martin Gilbert
Jacob Birnbaum and Soviet Jews.
by Yossi Klein Halevi. Part 1
Jacob Birnbaum and Soviet Jews.
by Yossi Klein Halevi. Part 2

Chronology of events
of the Zionist movement in the Soviet Union

Compiled by Yuli Kosharovsky and Enid Wurtman


Date Event
00-01-1972 Catherine Palatnik holds five-day hunger strike in support of her sister, Prisoner of Zion Raiza Palatnik in Moscow (2).
00-01-1972 Searches in the apartments of Solomon Greenberg and Constantine Skoblinsky in Kharkov (2).
00-01-1972 The second trial of dissident Vladimir Bukovsky. Sentence: seven years in prison plus five years of internal exile.
05-01-1972 An article by Gregory Deborin "Social face of Zionism” is published in the newspaper "Izvestia"
18-01-1972 28th Congress of the World Zionist Organization in Jerusalem.
21-01-1972 Michael Rozik is assaulted and beaten up while trying to enter the Dutch Embassy in Moscow (2).
27-01-1972 Yuri Aronovich, the conductor of Soviet Radio and Television Orchestra, is assaulted and beaten up near his house in Moscow (2).
00-02-1972 On the eve of President Nixon’s visit to the USSR, 57 activists wrote him a letter requesting a meeting (24, p. 13).
07-02-1972 A young biologist Ilya Gleizer is arrested in Moscow, a month after he applied for an exit visa (11, p. 126).
07-02-1972  Hunger strike of Prisoners of Zion Mendelevich, Shur, Trachtenberg, Grillius and Dymshitz in support to Hillel Shur, who was denied his visitation rights. (2)
19-02-1972 Demonstration of 60 Jews near a synagogue in Kiev to protest against being “denied exit visas to Israel “(24, p. 18).
23-02-1972 Vladimir Slepak was issued a warning "for conducting a parasitic way of life" (24, p. 14).
30-02-1972 Vitali, Inna and Maria Rubin applied for exit visas (22).
05-03-1972 900 Jews laid wreaths and read Kaddish at the site of the mass killings of Jews by the Nazis and their accomplices in Minsk, Belarus (24, p. 18).
11-03-1972 Prisoners of Pot’ma camps announced a hunger strike against the conditions of their detention (2).
15-03-1972 Forty activists in Moscow appealed to President Nixon, requesting a meeting (2).
20-03-1972 Eva Butman is beaten up after visiting her husband in labor camp; her husband’s letters are confiscated (24, p. 19).
24-03-1972 On Jan. 13th Yuri Brind from Kharkov applied for an exit visa. On February 1st his apartment was searched. He was arrested and taken to a hospital for the mentally ill. On April 5th he will be found fit to stand trial and charged with anti-Soviet fabrications and slander. (24, p. 22).
25-03-1972 100 Moscow Jews came to the Supreme Soviet with a petition signed by 213 refuseniks, demanding either to release the detainees who were held without trial, or to open the trial. 10 activists, including Victor Polsky, Vladimir Slepak, Michael Zand and Vladimir Prestin were arrested and put in jail for 15 days (2).
27-03-1972 Gabriel Shapiro, Victor Yahot, Boris Orlov, Joseph Begun and Sergei Hurwitz warned by KGB on the inadvisability of any upcoming Passover celebrations (24, p. 17).
29-03-1972 Dispersal, detentions and beating up of those gathered at a Moscow synagogue on the eve of Passover (2).
00-04-1972 Alexander Voronel launched his seminar "On collective phenomenon" (22).
01-04-1972 Arkhipova Street and the streets around it are closed to traffic, gatherings of people are banned. On the first evening of Passover on March 29 the police dispersed the crowds of Jews; many were detained (11, p. 124).
03-04-1972 The newspaper “Evening Sverdlovsk” published an article entitled "Martyrs and Masks”, which slandered Vladimir Markman, Anne and Mark Levin and Yuli Kosharovsky (24, p. 23).
06-04-1972 A Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences Benjamin Levich filed documents for exit visas and was fired from his position at Moscow State University.  (11, p. 124).
07-04-1972 Moscow yeshiva reopened after six year break. DM (11, p. 124).
08-04-1972 Valery Panov dismissed from the ballet company in Leningrad after filing documents for emigration. DM (11, p. 124,).
10-04-1972 Commemoration in the Central Synagogue in Moscow of the Jews killed in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (11, p. 124).
11-04-1972 Jewish activists staged a rally at the memorial at Babi Yar. The rally was dispersed by the military and police (11, p. 124).
12-04-1972 Vladimir Markman’s phone conversation with Israel became one of the grounds for his indictment (22).
12-04-1972 A letter of protest against the obstacles in Hebrew studying is sent to the Central Committee of the CPSU by 11 Hebrew teachers (11, p. 124). 
16-04-1972 A letter of protest to the Central Committee of the CPSU against the publication of an anti-Semitic book "Zionism under the blue star” is sent by 35 Moscow activists (11, p. 124).
18-04-1972 Shulem Rosen dismissed from his position of the head of Moscow Synagogue for the commemoration of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (11, p. 124)
24-04-1972 Summons for conscription to military service presented to 11 Moscow activists-refuseniks: Yahot, Shapiro, Ainbinder, Abramovich, Roginsky, Klyachkin, Markish, Nashpits, Ioffe and Vladimir Lerner (24, p. 19).
27-04-1972 An article in the newspaper "Ural Worker" entitled "Tel Aviv is looking for a hero."
27-04-1972 Anwar Sadat's visit to Moscow for talks on the strengthening of military cooperation with Egypt.
29-04-1972 Arrest of Vladimir Markman at the train station in Sverdlovsk while trying to travel to Kazan (16, p. 295).
30-04-1972 A samizdat publication "The White Book of Exodus" smuggled to the West and presented to President Nixon on the eve of his visit to Moscow (11, v.3, p. 37).
30-04-1972 In Sverdlovsk two officers woke refusenik Anna Levin at 4 o'clock in the morning to give her the summons for military training for her husband Mark. (24, p. 24)
30-04-1972 Solidarity Day with the Jews of the Soviet Union held in the United States (11, p. 124).
00-05-1972 Arrest of Valery Panov for 10 days for "hooliganism" in Leningrad (24, p. 26).
00-05-1972 Arrest of Yuri Pokh for evading military service in Odessa (24, p. 26).
00-05-1972 Arest of Leonid Zabelyshensky for 10 days in Sverdlovsk (24, p. 26).
02-05-1972 Despite the ban by the authorities, 1000 Jews staged a rally in the suburbs of Riga in memory of the Jewish victims of the Nazis (11, p. 124).
05-05-1972 David Bonavia, the Moscow correspondent of the London "Times", expelled from Moscow for the coverage of Jewish and dissident activity (11, p. 124)
12-05-1972 KGB warned Moscow's leading refuseniks not to be active during Nixon’s visit to Moscow (2).
12-05-1972 Police made a list of all the activists who were present at a meeting in Ilya Korenfeld’s apartment in Moscow (2).
13-05-1972 Bar Mitzvah of Leonid Slepak In Moscow. He is presented with a prayer book signed by 200 British parliamentarians (11, p. 124)
14-05-1972 During 14th and 15th of May, 38 Jews in Riga were summoned to the KGB to sign a statement obligating them not to leave the city within the next two weeks (24, p. 25).
17-05-1972 Arrest of brothers Weinman in Kharkov, who were seeking emigration to Israel, on charges of “hooliganism”. They were summoned to military service on the eve of Nixon’s visit and ignored the call-up (24, p. 26)
18-05-1972 20 Jews in Vilnius warned by the Interior Ministry not to depart from Vilnius during Nixon’s visit (2).
21-05-1972 Leading activists Vladimir Slepak, Viktor Polsky, Roman Rutman, Leo Libov, Boris Orlov, Joseph Begun and Valentine Prussakov detained in Moscow until the end of President Nixon’s visit (24, p. 25).
21-05-1972 In Kiev, Alexander Feldman, Lazar Slutsky and Zinovy Melamed detained and held under preventive arrest for 10 days (2).
22-05-1972 Richard Nixon arrives in Moscow until May 30th for a summit meeting with Leonid Brezhnev. 
24-05-1972 Arrest of Leonid Tsipin and Alexander Slepak for their announced intention to demonstrate during the summit (24, p. 25).
25-05-1972 Arrest of Isaac Shkolnik, an activist from Vinnitsa, for 10 days (24, p. 30).
31-05-1972 Arrest of Gregory Berman, a teacher from Odessa (2).
00-06-1972 Alexander Lerner opened a seminar on cybernetics in Moscow.
00-06-1972 In Georgia, Boris Davarishvili, who applied for emigration visa in April, was sentenced to seven years in prison for "hooliganism" (2, 11, p. 127).
01-06-1972 The trial of Yuli Brind in Kharkov. He was sentenced to 2.5 years of imprisonment (11, p. 125).
04-06-1972 Joseph Brodsky, a future Nobel laureate in literature, is exiled from the USSR (11, p. 125).
06-06-1972 Alexander Yesenin-Volpin left the Soviet Union on an Israeli visa. The Soviet authorities encourage dissidents to leave (11, p. 125).
08-06-1972 Visit of Prime Minister Aziz Sidky of Egypt to Moscow which continued until June 13th (11, p. 125).
09-06-1972 A chuppah of Gabriel Shapiro and U.S. activist Judy Silver conducted by American Rabbi, Garry Kranz in Moscow after Gabriel Shapiro came out of hiding (11, p. 125).
12-06-1972 Arrest of Gabriel Shapiro for evading military service after his wife left the country (11, p. 125).
13-06-1972 A meeting in Paris chaired by Renee Hasin is organized by the International Committee for the Protection of Human Rights (11, p. 125).
16-06-1972 Arrest of Mark Nashpits for evading military service (24, p. 29).
17-06-1972 The trial of Yuri Pokh in Odessa. His sentence - 3.5 years in prison "for evading military service" (2).
21-06-1972 Arrest of a well-known dissident, Pyotr Yakir (11, p. 125).
05-07-1972 The Soviet-Syrian treaty on economic and military aid to Syria is signed. (11, p. 126).
05-07-1972 Arrest of Isaac Shkolnik of Vinnitsa for "anti-Soviet propaganda and espionage for Britain" (24, p. 30).
05-07-1972 The visit of Syrian President Hafez al-Assad to Moscow (11, p. 126).
14-07-1972 A book by Trofim Kichko "Zionism - the Enemy of Youth" is   published (11, p. 126).
15-07-1972 Henrietta Markman demonstration in the Central Committee of Communist Party in protests against the arrest of her husband in Sverdlovsk. Moscow and Kishinev activists joined the protest. Henrietta was arrested and sent back to Sverdlovsk (24, p. 32).
17-07-1972 Arrest of Lazar Lubarsky in Rostov-on-Don following an intensive search. Refuseniks were interrogated in connection with this case in Moscow (11, p. 126).
17-07-1972 The visit of PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat in Moscow which continued until July 27th (11, p. 126).
18-07-1972 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat announced the departure of Soviet experts from Egypt (11, p. 126).
19-07-1972 TASS: "The Soviet military personnel completed their work in Egypt" (11, p. 126).
26-07-1972 The trial of Gabriel Shapiro for the "evasion of military service." His sentence - one year on probation (11, p. 126).
02-08-1972 The trial of Mark Nashpits for the "evasion of military service." His sentence - one year on probation (11, p. 126).
03-08-1972 OVIR posted messages on the levy of an “education tax” for immigrants (11, p. 126; 24, p. 36).
09-08-1972 The trial of Vladimir Markman in Sverdlovsk. His sentence - 3 years   maximum security imprisonment (11, p. 126).
10-08-1972 The trial of Gregory Berman in Odessa, who had applied for emigration in April 1972. His sentence - 2.5 years of imprisonment for the "evasion of military service" (11, p. 126).
11-08-1972 Moscow Jews gathered at the grave of Mikhoels on “The Night of the Murdered Poets". David Markish, the son of the murdered poet Peretz Markish, read the Kaddish (11, p. 126).
14-08-1972 The Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a detailed resolution № 573 “On compensation for education” (11, p. 126).
15-08-1972 A press conference of 9 scientists led by Benjamin Levich against the “education tax” and the deprivation of exit visas (11, p. 126).
15-08-1972 The houses of Moscow activists Slepak, Polsky, and Yahot are searched in connection with the case of Lazar Lubarsky. After the search, they sent a letter in defense of Lubarsky to the 28th Zionist Congress. (24, p. 33).
22-08-1972 Trial of Ilya Glezer in Moscow. His sentence - three years in prison plus three years in internal exile (11, p. 126).
23-08-1972 The newspaper "Moskovskaya Pravda" published an article against the Zionist activity of Glezer, Slepak and others (11, p. 126).
25-08-1972 A letter sent by President Mitterrand to the Soviet Ambassador in Paris, criticical of Soviet policy on emigration (11, p. 126).
29-08-1972 The newspaper "Pravda" published an article: "The Palestinian resistance and the intrigues of the reaction” (11, p. 127)
31-08-1972 Premier Kosygin signed an addendum to article 74, prohibiting the use of the telephone against the interests of the state. Following this new decree, home telephones of many activists have been switched off (11, 134).
00-09-1972 This autumn in Moscow Vitaly Rubin opened a seminar on the Humanities.
01-09-1972 Yuli Kosharovsky sent a letter to the Supreme Court in defense of Markman (aa).
04-09-1972 Conference of world leaders in London on the subject of the “education tax“ (11, p.127).
06-09-1972 Demonstration of Jewish activists and Academician Sakharov near the Embassy of Lebanon in Moscow against the killing of Israeli athletes in Munich by Lebanese terrorists. 25 Jews are arrested (11, p. 127).
07-09-1972 Trial of the brothers Weinman in Kharkov. Their sentence - four years for "hooliganism under aggravated circumstances."
08-09-1972 From 8 pm access to the Central Synagogue in Moscow for New Year celebrations is prevented by the police (11, p. 127).
12-09-1972 Arrest of Viktor Krasin, a prominent dissident and founder of the Action Group on Human Rights, 1969 (11, p.127).
17-09-1972 On the eve of Yom Kippur more than 1000 Jews in Kishinev participated in the commemoration of the Munich victims (11, p.127).
19-09-1972 The demonstration of Moscow activists against the education tax conducted in the Supreme Soviet at the opening of the 4th session of the 8th convocation. 31 people detained some of them fined or jailed for 15 days (11, p. 127).
19-09-1972 A hunger strike at the Central Telegraph Office in Moscow was dispersed. Slepak and Manevich were put in jail for 15 days. (24, p. 41).
26-09-1972 House of Commons of the British Parliament requested that the UN Commission on Human Rights discuss at their next meeting the Soviet “education tax”  (11, p. 127).
26-09-1972 An extraordinary meeting of the core of the leadership of the "National Conference" (125 people) held in Washington. It was dedicated to the education tax. At this meeting Senator Jackson for the first time presented the idea of “the Amendment”. (22, Jerry Goodman).
27-09-1972 Jackson's proposal was approved at the extraordinary meeting of the “National Conference "; then the very same day Jackson presented it in the Senate (13, p. 50).
27-09-1972 At the end of his first-year prison term, received for "hooliganism", refusenik Yankel Hantsis was accused of anti-Soviet propaganda and sentenced to an additional two years in prison. (11, p. 127).
27-09-1972 A meeting of "state Jews" in Moscow against the campaign in the West on the education tax. Participants include Dragunsky, Vergelis, Zivs and others (11, p.127).
28-09-1972 The apartment of Lazar Lubarsky in Rostov-on-Don was searched (2).
29-09-1972 A rally in memory of those executed at Babi Yar is dispersed by police. 11 Jews are arrested and jailed for 15 days (24, p. 41).
00-10-1972 The New York Times published a letter against the education tax, signed by 21 Nobel laureates (13, p. 51).
00-10-1972 The first issue of Samizdat magazine "Jews in the USSR."  is published in Moscow (16, p. 418)
00-10-1972 Jewish activists submitted the basic demands of the movement at a press-conference for foreign correspondents (2).
04-10-1972 Representatives of the USA and the USSR signed the final document on Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), which includes limiting of the number of land-based missiles and rockets that are installed on submarines (on 21st of November in Geneva would be starting the second stage of the negotiations - SALT-2).
03-10-1972 For the second time Senator Jackson with 65 co-sponsors, presented the Amendment to the Senate (13, p. 51-52).
04-10-1972 Prisoners of Zion Lazar Trachtenberg and Arkady Voloshin (Kishinev process) arrived in Israel (11, p. 134).
05-10-1972 Press conference of Moscow Jews in support of the Jackson Amendment (24, p. 42).
06-10-1972 The Supreme Court of Russian Federation denied Vladimir Markman’s appeal (11, p. 134).
14-10-1972 After serving two years Prisoner of Zion Michael Shepshelovich was released from imprisonment (Kishinev process) (11, p. 134).
16-10-1972 The visit of Egyptian Prime Minister Aziz Sidky in Moscow which lasted for three days (11, p. 134).
17-10-1972 A symposium on "Zionism and anti-Communism" is held in the Institute of Philosophy of the USSR Academy of Sciences (11, p. 134)).
18-10-1972 19 families left without paying the education tax on the eve of the U.S. State Department announcement of the trade agreement with the USSR (11, p. 134).
21-10-1972 Well known Jewish activists in Moscow Gabriel Shapiro, Michael Klyachkin and Roman Rutman received permission to leave (24, p. 43).
25-10-1972 Prisoners of Zion in several prisons hold a hunger strike for 3 days, demanding the release of Sylva Zalmanson (11, p. 134).
26-10-1972 Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Boris Shumilin together with senior officials of OVIR received a delegation of 100 Jews to discuss the denial of emigration (11, p. 134).
29-10-1972 100 Jews in Kaunas, Lithuania, laid a wreath in memory of murdered Jews in a mass grave near Kaunas (11, p. 134).
00-11-1972 35 countries in Europe and North America have established the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (13, p. 60).
01-11-1972 Eighteen Jewish activists staged a two-day sit-in protest at the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet against the unjustified denial of emigration (11, p. 134).
01-11-1972 Press conference organized by The Folkshtimme, Austria, for those wishing to return to the USSR (11, p. 134)
02-11-1972 Esther and David Markish receive permission to immigrate to Israel (11, p. 135).
04-11-1972 Yuri Galanskov, a poet and dissident, died in the Pot’ma camp at the age of 33 (11, p. 135).
07-11-1972 Republican Richard Nixon won in the presidential election in the USA with a landslide victory.
08-11-1972 Hillel Shur, who had been released from detention in August of 1971, obtained an exit visa (11, p. 135, DM).
09-11-1972 Prisoner of Zion Yankel Hantsis was denied an appeal by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (11, p. 135).
11-11-1972 Simon Levitt and Arieh Kirshner (Kishinev process) released from detention (11, p. 135).
16-11-1972 Valery Chalidze, one of the founders of the Human Rights Committee in Moscow, received permission to immigrate to the United States (11, p. 135).
18-11-1972 OVIR posted an announcement that the procedure for emigration would be changed as of December 1st (2).
18-11-1972 A member of the Central Committee of Italian Communist Party Umberto Terracini, in an interview to the newspaper "La Stampa",  acknowledged  the existence of anti-Semitism in Russia, but not in ICP (11, p. 135).
20-11-1972 Prisoner of Zion Michael Shepshelovich arrived in Israel (11, p. 134).
22-11-1972 49 Jews were summoned to OVIR, where they were told that a special commission would reconsider their cases, but the criteria for issuing permits will not be published (11, p. 135).
22-11-1972 A hunger strike is conducted at the Central Telegraph in Moscow, requesting exit permits and the release of Prisoners of Zion.Twenty-three of the hunger strikers were arrested for 15 days (11, p. 135, 24, p. 44)
26-11-1972 More than 2000 stars of show business in the West appealed to the Soviet authorities to permit Valery and Galina Panov  to leave the USSR (11, p.135).
00-12-1972 Canadian Jewish Committee created a "Canadian Conference on Soviet Jews" (13, p. 53). 
00-12-1972 253 Jewish activists appealed to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet to include the Jews in an amnesty timed to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the USSR (24, p. 45).
01-12-1972 Arrest of Gedaliah Kipnis in Minsk. On November 29th he and his wife were taken off the train in Brest at the border of the USSR when leaving the country.  Searches were conducted in the homes of Davidovich, Olshansky, Ovsischer and Bateman (11, p. 136, 24, p. 50).
07-12-1972 An appeal of a group of scientists-refuseniks (Levich,Voronel, Azbel, Mandelzweig, Mash, Beilin, Lerner, Brailovsky and others) to scholars  of the West for support - "Ask not for whom the bell tolls, it tolls for thee. "
12-12-1972 By an edict of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Valery Chalidze had been stripped of his Soviet citizenship. (11, p. 136).
12-12-1972 239 Soviet Jews appealed to the United Nations to establish a commission to investigate violations of the "Declaration of Human Rights” by the Soviet Union (11, p. 136).
18-12-1972 Eight people were exempt from paying the education tax, including Victor Perelman who refused to pay on principle (11, p. 136).
18-12-1972 At the eve of the three-day festive session of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, 50 activists organized a demonstration demanding a response to their request for amnesty for the Prisoners of Zion. Many were detained; some were arrested for 15 days.  (24, p. 45)
21-12-1972 Following her release from the camp Raiza Palatnik received permission to leave the Soviet Union (11, p. 136).
21-12-1972 Joint meeting of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the Supreme Council of Russian Federation to mark the 50th anniversary of the Soviet Union. Attended by representatives of foreign communist parties, including the Israeli CP (11, p 136).
24-12-1972 A hunger strike in the Pot’ma and Perm camps on the second anniversary of the First Leningrad Trial (11, p. 136). 
27-12-1972 The Supreme Soviet publication - imposing the education tax.
27-12-1972 According to the News Press "Deputy Interior Shumilin announced a modification of the education tax. He stated that "the desire to emigrate does not contradict Soviet laws" (11, p. 136).
27-12-1972 A group of Moscow Jews held a press conference in connection with the new escalation of repression against emigration (11, p. 136).
28-12-1972 The decree of amnesty to mark the 50th anniversary of the Soviet Union did not include Prisoners of Zion (11, p 137).
30-12-1972 The 50th anniversary of the USSR.
30-12-1972 Authorities do not allow Jews to gather in the street near the Central Synagogue in Moscow on Saturday (11, p. 137).
30-12-1972 British parliamentary committee appealed to the Chairman of Soviet Supreme Council Podgorny with the proposal for the amnesty for all Prisoners of Zion (11, p. 137).

List of sources 
to the chronology of events

Employed abbreviations: a.a. - the archive of the author; DM - date of a message (not of an event); t.m.- a telephone message from Moscow in real time.
Other sources of information are listed below. Their numbers are given in the chronology in parentheses.

  1. Boris Morozov, "Jewish Emigration in the light of new documents," Cummings Center, Tel Aviv University "," TSHSD, 1998.
  2. Ann Shenkar, Newsletter "Actions Committee," (English).
  3. "Wikipedia", .
  4. "Jewish electronic encyclopedia"
  5. Concise Jewish Encyclopedia, tom.8, "Society for the Exploration of the Jewish community", Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 1996.
  6. Jewish Encyclopedia, CD-Rom Edition
  7. Friedman, Murray and Chernin, Albert, Editors, "A Second Exodus, The American Movement to Free Soviet Jews", Hanover, Brandeis University Press, 1999.
  8. Gilbert, Martin, "Shcharansky, Hero of Our Time", London, Macmillan London Limited, 1986.
  9. Levin, Nora, "The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917, Paradox of Survival", Volume I, Volume II, New York and London, New York University Press, 1988.
  10. Prital David, "Jews of the FSU in Israel and Diaspora".
  11. Soviet Jewish Affairs, Chronicle of Events, Sources are Western Press reports, unless specifically stated.
  12. Rosenfeld Nancy "Unfinished Journey".
  13. Interview.
  14. Washington Post.
  15. Wurtman Enid, Articles in "Jerusalem Post" and audiocassettes of telephone talks with refuseniks in Russia.
  16. Schroeter, Leonard, "The Last Exodus", Jerusalem, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Jerusalem, 1974.
  17. Insight, 70 Years of Soviet Union.
  18. Nehemia Levanon, Code Nativ, Am Oved, 1995, Hebrew.
  19. Yuli Kosharovsky, "We are once again the Jews", Volume 1, 2007.
  20. "Anti-Jewish processes in the Soviet Union 1969-1971 years", edition of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Centre for Research of East European Jewry in 1979.
  21. Pinkus, Benjamin, National Revival, Heritage Center, Ben-Gurion, 1993, Hebrew.
  22. Interview of the author.
  23. "A collection of letters, petitions and appeals", Center for the Study of East European Jewry. 
  24. Shindler, Colin, "Exit Visa, Détente, Human Rights and the Jewish Emigration Movement in the USSR", London, Bachman and Turner, 1978.
  25. Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry. Newsletter.
  26. Gilbert, Martin, "The Jews of Hope, The Plight of Soviet Jewry Today", London, Macmillan London Limited, 1984.
  27. Fain, Benjamin, "Faith and Reason", Mahanaim, Jerusalem 2007.
  28. Bulletin UCSJ "Alert".
  29. Lerner, Alexander, "Change of Heart", Minneapolis, Lerner Publication Company, Rehovot, Balaban Publishers, 1992.
  30. Lein, Evgeny "Lest we forget".
  31. Israel Public Council for Soviet Jewry, Israel, Profile.
  32. Gilbert, Martin, "The Jews of Hope, The Plight of Soviet Jewry Today" London, Macmillian London Limited, 1984.
  33. Joel L. Lebowitz, James S. Langer, William I. Glaberson, Editors, "Fourth International conference on collective fenomena", Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Published by The New York Academy of Science, ANYAA9 337, 1-223, 1980.
  34. Joel L. Lebowitz, Editor, "Fourth International conference on collective fenomena", Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Published by The New York Academy of Science, ANYAA9 373, 1-233, 1981.
  35. David Zilberman, "Hunger-strike and demonstration of Soviet Jews in Moscow on March 10-11, 1971", Diary of a demonstrator, The Legend of the exodus from Russia, Nazareth Elit, Israel, 1971.
  36. Inna Axelrod-Rubin "Life is like life”, memories, Jerusalem 2006.

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