From the History of the Jewish Movement


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1977-1978
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1975-1976
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1974
Chronology
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1973
Chronology
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1972
Chronology
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1948-1971
The Jews of Struggle
By Michael Beizer
“I Don’t Know
Whom to Thank”
By Michael Beizer
Jewish Movement in USSR:
what was its essence?
By Michael Beizer
Interrogation
By Dina Beilin
Hijacking Their Way
Out of Tyranny
By Gal Beckerman
An Exodus in our Time
By Louis Rosenblum
Andropov and the Jews.
by Martin Gilbert
Jacob Birnbaum and Soviet Jews.
by Yossi Klein Halevi. Part 1
Jacob Birnbaum and Soviet Jews.
by Yossi Klein Halevi. Part 2

Chronology of events
of the Zionist movement in the Soviet Union

Compiled by Yuli Kosharovsky and Enid Wurtman



1973


Date Event
00-01-1973 Charles Vanik introduces the Jackson-Vanik Amendment to Congress (13, p. 52).
07-01-1973 Yefim Davidovich appealed to the veterans of World War II about anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union (2).
11-01-1973 Leaders of Jewish communities met in Geneva to discuss the situation of Soviet Jews (11, p. 137).
13-01-1973 Demonstration of Moscow Jews against the refusal of the Soviet authorities to include Prisoners of Zion in the Decree of Amnesty (11, p. 137).
14-01-1973 The newspaper "Pravda Vostoka” (Tashkent) reports on the trial of Jacob Kauf (11, p. 137).
19-01-1973 Publication of the “education tax” in the Bulletin of the Supreme Soviet (11, p. 137).
27-01-1973 The official end of the Vietnam War.
31-01-1973 The trial of Lazar Lubarsky in Rostov (31.01-02.02) on charges of libel and leaking of state secrets. Sentence - four years in prison in maximum security (11, p. 137).
01-02-1973 Searches in the apartments of 20 Jewish activists in Minsk: Olshansky, Ovsischer and others. All Jewish materials seized (24, str.51).
07-02-1973 Congress joined the Senate in support of the Jackson Amendement (11, p. 137).
10-02-1973 Search of the  apartment of Goldstein brothers in Tbilisi (24, p. 53).
19-02-1973 Marina Temkin kidnapped by militia after her exit visa rescinded (2).
26-02-1973 Egyptian Defense Minister arrives in Moscow for an official visit (11, p. 137).
00-03-1973 Jackson said he would resubmit the Amendment in the Senate due to increasing repressions in the USSR. Vanik has taken similar action in Congress.
08-03-1973 The appeal of 309 Jews from 6 cities (Moscow, Kharkov, Minsk, Kiev, Vilnius, and Novosibirsk) to Senator Jackson and Congressman Vanik in support of the Jackson - Vanik amendement (New-York Times 9.3.1973).
11-03-1973 March 11th - 14th Visit to Moscow by US Secretary of the Treasury George Schultz for talks of development of trade and economic relations. Believed to have mentioned issue of education tax.   (11, p.123)
11-03-1973 Soviet Jews urged Jackson not to give into growing pressure from the administration.
12-03-1973 The appeal of 13 international organizations, including three Jewish, to the UN Human Rights Committee with regard to the restrictions on emigration from the USSR (11, p. 123).
15-03-1973 Yefim Potik, from Chernovtsy arrested at Brest on the Soviet border on way to Israel; accused of attempting to bribe customs official to take a piano to his daughter, given a 3 months sentence.  (11,  p.123)
16-03-1973 Senator Jackson officially submitted the amendment to the Senate on behalf of 77 (out of hundred) of its members (13, p. 52).
20-03-1973 The education tax is suspended (13, p. 52).
20-03-1973 In Leningrad Nikolai Yavor arrested for "hooliganism" after filing documents for emigration. (11, p. 123).
20-03-1973 Article of Victor Louis in the "Evening News" ("Evening News"), London, on the abolishment of education tax (11, p. 123).
20-03-1973 RSFSR Supreme Court upheld the verdict of Lazar Lubarsky (4 years imprisonment) (11, p. 123).
21-03-1973 Saddam Hussein, the deputy chairmen of Iraq’s Ba'ath Party, visited Moscow from March 21st until March 24th (11, p. 123).
21-03-1973 After discussion in the Politburo, the implementation of the education tax is suspended (1, p. 164-169).
27-03-1973 Representatives of the Soviet Information Service in Paris summoned to the court of law on the charges of publishing anti-Semitic information in the Soviet daily newsletter. The case was brought to court by the International League against Racism (11, str.123).
27-03-1973 Arrest of Leningrad refusenik Yefim Krichevsky "for hooliganism" (11, p. 123).
02-04-1973 Nikolai Yavor, Leningrad, sentenced to one year imprisonment for "hooliganism" (11, str.123).
02-04-1973 Prime Minister Kosygin went to Sweden on an official visit from April 2nd to April 6th. At a press conference on April 5th, he denied "the mistreatment of Jews in the USSR" (11, p. 123).
04-04-1973 April 4th - 6th - brothers Isai and Grigory Goldstein, under interrogation; detained in Tbilisi. Released after passports confiscated; ordered not to leave the city. (11, p.124)
11-04-1973 The trial of Isaac Shkolnik, March 29th-April 11th in Vinnitsa. He is sentenced to 10 years in prison for "espionage". Isaac’s wife Feiga appealed to Senator Jackson for help (11, p. 124).
12-04-1973 10 Jewish activists hold news conference in Moscow to stress that emigration curbs unchanged; plea to West not to be misled over apparent lifting of education tax. (11, p.124)
18-04-1973 Senator Hugh Scott, US Senate Republican leader announces the Soviet Union has notified US of suspension of education tax in two oral communications from Soviet leaders to President Nixon on March 30th and April 10th.            (11, p.124)
19-04-1973 Nixon and Kissinger met with 14 representatives of Jewish organizations in order to persuade them to abandon their support of  the Jackson-Vanik Amendement. The meeting was organized by Max Fischer (13, Louis Rosenblum to his  son Daniel).
19-04-1973 Professor Benjamin Levich holds press conference at home in Moscow in response to Soviet notification to US of suspension of education tax, warning against over optimism.   (11, p.124)
24-04-1973 Jews in Kishinev congregate at Jewish cemetery to commemorate 70th anniversary of Kishinev pogrom.  (11, p.124)
25-04-1973 Director of Soviet Embassy bulletin in Paris found guilty of defamation and 'provoking racial hatred and violence' through anti-Semitic article (11, p.124).
29-04-1973 Several hundred Kiev Jews gather at Babi Yar to commemorate victims of Nazism. (11, p.124)
02-05-1973 Kissinger met with Jewish leaders Fisher and Stein before a trip to Moscow (24, p.61).
02-05-1973 Riga's Jews gathered in Rumbuli  to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the uprising of the Warsaw Ghetto (11, p.124)
02-05-1973 New York Mayor John Lindsay visits in Moscow accompanied by Seymour Graubard, National Chairman of B'nai Brith Anti-Defamation League.  (2-9 May) (11, p.124).
03-05-1973 A demonstration of "khunweybins" near the building of newspaper "Izvestia" (Pushkin Square) against the bias  coverage of Israel and Jewish emigration in the Soviet press (22, Michael Babel).
04-05-1973 Five-day visit of Henry Kissinger to Moscow to discuss the  preparations   for the visit of Brezhnev to the United States. Kissinger brought with him a list of 738 names of refuseniks (11, p.124).
06-05-1973 More than 100,000 Jews have gathered in New York for a rally in solidarity with Soviet Jewry (11, p.124).
07-05-1973 Sit-down demonstration of 40 Jews in the waiting room of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in protest against unreasonable refusals (11, p.124).
08-05-1973 6 Moscow activists met with the Mayor of New York Lindsay after his meeting with Kosygin  and Shumilin (11, p.125).
09-05-1973 Soviet television presented a movie entitled "Beware of Zionism", where Fanya Kaplan was called a Jew, and the link between the Mensheviks, Trotsky, Kerensky and Zionism was underscored. (11, p. 125).
09-05-1973 Moscow Jews gathered in the woods near the city to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Israel (11, p.125).
15-05-1973 Acts of vandalism at the Jewish cemetery in Minsk (11, p.125).
16-05-1973 Evgeny Levich, the son of corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences Benjamin Levich, was arrested on a Moscow street, and sent to the military service at Lake Baikal, despite the fact that he was at that time undergoing medical treatment (11, p.125).
17-05-1973 Demonstration of "khunweybins" near the building of the General Prosecutor’s office. (22, Michael Babel).
17-05-1973 Alla Yavor’s appeal was accepted by the Supreme Court of the RSFSR. The case was submitted for review for lack of evidence, but the Leningrad City Court dismissed the Supreme Court's decision, while reducing the term of imprisonment to the duration of the actual detention. Yavor would be released in September of 1973 (22, Nicholas (Eli) Yavor).  
18-05-1973 Four-day visit by Leonid Brezhnev to West Germany (18-22 May) (11, p.125)
23-05-1973 Sit-down demonstration outside the General Prosecutor's office. Sat on the sidewalk, were not arrested.
30-05-1973 In Minsk, an announcement that the investigation of the case against Davidovich and Kipnis discontinued. Kipnis released from prison (11, p.125).
00-06-1973 Since refuseniks Azbel, Voronel and Giterman were denied exit visas to Israel again, they got offers from Tel Aviv University to work from their homes in Moscow.
03-06-1973 The first stage of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was opened in Geneva. (24, p.64).
04-06-1973 A week of solidarity with the Arab peoples begins in the Soviet Union, initiated by the Organization of Solidarity with the Peoples of Africa and Asia. There were arranged demonstrations and protests "against Israeli aggression" (11, p.126).
10-06-1973 On the eve of the visit of Leonid Brezhnev to the U.S., scientists-refuseniks Alexander Luntz, Anatoly Libgober, Moisey Giterman, Dan Roginski, Alexander Voronel, Mark Azbel and Victor Brailovsky began a two-week hunger strike in protest against unjustified refusals. (11, p.126).
10-06-1973 Demonstration of "khunweybins" in the Alexander Garden near the Kremlin in Moscow (22, Michael Babel).
11-06-1973 The second demonstration of "khunweybins" near the Kremlin wall. The demonstrators were detained and then released.
15-06-1973 Prisoners of Zion in the Perm’s maximum security camps declared a  hunger strike during Leonid Brezhnev’s visit in the U.S.. Solomon Dreisner, recently released after a three-year prison term, joined the hunger strike in Leningrad (24, p.64).
15-06-1973 Yefim Krichevsky from Leningrad, was sentenced to 2.5 years probation "for hooliganism" (11, p.125).
16-06-1973 Brezhnev arrives in the USA for his visit from the 16th until the 25th of June. Prisoners of Zion declare a hunger strike (11, p. 126).
17-06-1973 Demonstration of "khunweybins"   near Moscow OVIR (22, Michael Babel).
17-06-1973 The famous sculptor Ernst Neizvestny filed papers to immigrate to Israel (11, p.126, DM).
17-06-1973 “Izvestia”  published an article about Soviet Jews in Rome wishing to return to the USSR (11, p.126).
19-06-1973 Speaking at the Foreign Relations Committee of the American Senate, Leonid Brezhnev argued that 95% of those Soviet Jews who had asked to emigrate, have been allowed to leave (11, p.126).
21-06-1973 Demonstration of four women near Moscow OVIR against unfair  refusals.
28-06-1973 Demonstration of "khunweybins"  at the subway station “Mayakovskaya”. They were arrested for 15 days and subjected to ill-treatment (22, Michael Babel).
03-07-1973 The official opening of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) took place between the Ministers for Foreign Affairs in Helsinki from July 3rd – 7th. (11, p.126).
03-07-1973 The appeal of Isaac Shkolnik. Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court reduced the 10-year sentence to seven years (11, p.126). 
13-07-1973 Victor Boguslavsky released from prison after serving the three year term he received during the Second Leningrad process (11, p.126).
17-07-1973 Demonstration of 17 Jews in Kishinev in the waiting room of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Moldavia against the prosecution of persons who have applied for exit visas. The demonstrators renounced their Soviet citizenship. (11, p.126).
18-07-1973 The Soviet dissident Andrei Amalric has received an additional three-year term "for slandering the Soviet system” before the end of his previous term. (11, p.127).
00/08/1973 Demonstration in front of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in late August due to the fact that the Minister Shchelokov had not responded to the letter of refuseniks.
01-08-1973 Press conference of corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences B. Levich about the situation of his son who was sent to military service. (11, p.127).
03-08-1973 In his speech at a meeting in the "Commitee on Foreign Affairs”  Senator William Fulbright opposed Jackson’s Amendment (1911, p.127, DM).
03-08-1973 A letter of 49 activists against Fulbright’s speech. (11, p. 127, DM).
10-08-1973 Arkady Spielberg was released from prison after serving three year term(11, p.127).
13-08-1973 Lev Korenblit, who served three years after the First Leningrad process, and  Mark Dymshitz’s two daughters arrived to Israel (11, p.127).
14-08-1973 Sakharov's letter to the U.S. Congress in support of the Jackson-Vanik Amendement.
15-08-1973 The 9th World Student Games in Moscow - August 15th-25th, involving two Israeli teams. Authorities create serious obstacles to Soviet Jews to visit the matches of Israeli teams as they passionately root for the Israelis. Foreign correspondents were amazed by treatment of Israelis by the Soviet authorities, who were trying to isolate the Israeli teams completely (11, p.127, 24, p.66).
15-08-1973 Meeting with Israeli athletes near the Central Synagogue in Moscow (11, p.127).
15-08-1973 Israeli journalists denied visas to Moscow to cover the Student Games (11, p.127).
29-08-1973 “Pravda” published a letter of 41 academicians condemning Sakharov, Solzhenitsyn and other dissidents.
00-09-1973 Anatoly Yakobson, his wife Maya and son left for Israel.
01-09-1973 Announcement of the verdict to Pyotr Yakir and Viktor Krasin - 3 years of labor camps, plus 3 years of exile (11, p.116).
03-09-1973 Henry Kissinger is appointed U.S. Secretary of State.
07-09-1973 Soviet newspapers reprinted the TASS statement "Being a Soviet scientist means to be a Soviet patriot," summing up the campaign against Andrei Sakharov. (11, p.116)
07-09-1973 International Union of Pure and Applied Physics sent a letter of protest to Soviet Academy of Sciences in connection with the ban by the authorities of the visit of Professor A. Voronel to the Conference on Physics in Amsterdam (11, p.116, DM).
08-09-1973 American Academy of Sciences warned the Soviet Academy of Sciences against the further harassment of Andrei Sakharov (11, p.116).
09-09-1973 10 Jewish scholars (Levich, Azbel, Luntz and others) condemned the harassment of Andrei Sakharov (11, p.116).
09-09-1973 TASS attacked Sakharov and criticized "some of the statements in Sweden and Austria “ for attempting to link the treatment of dissidents inside the Soviet Union and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (11, p.116)
11-09-1973 110 British scientists appealed to Premier Minister Heath with a request to intervene on behalf of dissidents and Soviet Jews at a meeting of the CSCE  and urge USSR to lift emigration restrictions
 11, p.116).
11-09-1973 35 prominent Jewish activists have expressed solidarity with Academician Sakharov (11, p.116).
13-09-1973 Soviet authorities stopped the jamming of BBC, "Voice of America” and Deutsche Welle. Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe continue to be jammed.  (11, p.116).
15-09-1973 “Pravda” published an article entitled "Who is for the cold war?", directed against the Zionists and the dissidents (11, p.116).
15-09-1973 Twelve refusenik- scientists, barred from emigrating to Israel, published a letter condemning the methods of “quiet diplomacy” and accuse U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce Steven Lazarus of having tried during a recent visit to Moscow to dissuade them from public protests and into appealing to US Jewish organizations not to support Jackson Amendment(11, p.116). 
18-09-1973 The Supreme Soviet ratified the International Covenant on Civil   and Political Rights. 
18-09-1973 The discussion of the Helsinki Accords is continuing in Geneva- until July 21st, 1975.
20-09-1973 97 activists from Moscow, Kiev, Vilnius and Novosibirsk sent to the Central Committee a letter of protest against the refusal of permission to go to Israel. They questioned Brezhnev's assurances on the freedom of emigration to the Foreign Relations Committee in the U.S. Senate on June 19th. Among the signatories: Lerner, Slepak and Levich (11, p.117)
21-09-1973 An act of vandalism at the Jewish cemetery in Leningrad (11, p.117).
23-09-1973 Ainbinder, Roginsky, I. Goldfarb, Orlov and Boguslavsky receive exit visas to Israel (11, p.117).
23-09-1973 In a letter to Interior Minister Shchelokov physicist-refusenik  Alexander Temkin denied that  he did not want to use permit to leave. He demands that his daughter Marina be permitted to go with him which the visa issued to him allowed (11, p.117)
23-09-1973 Soviet court decided to continue the "psychiatric treatment" of well-known dissident General Grigorenko (11, p.117)
24-09-1973 Aaron Spielberg, who in August was released from prison, has received an exit visa to Israel (11, p.117-118).
25-09-1973 4 Jews in Kishinev launched a hunger strike in protest against the refusal of exit visas to Israel (11, p.118).
25-09-1973 Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko delivered a speech at the UN for the reduction of military budgets by western countries and against their interference in the internal affairs of the USSR in the field of human rights (11, p.118).
26-09-1973 Kissinger repeats his call for “quiet diplomacy” at a press conference in New York (24, p.82).
26-09-1973 The Budget Commission of the U.S. Congress voted unanimously against granting to the Soviet Union most-favored nation status (11, p.118).
27-09-1973 Twelve Jews with the Star of David on their chests held a demonstration near the Moscow synagogue protesting against being denied exit visas to Israel (11, p.118).
27-09-1973 Pravda announced the ratification of two UN treaties on human rights with the exception of an optional protocol related to complaints about the breaches of treaties (11, p.118).
28-09-1973 Demonstration of "khunveybins" at the "Izvestia" building . Four out of ten were arrested for 10-15 days. (22, Michael Babel).
28-09-1973 Two Arab terrorists took three Jewish immigrants and an Austrian officer as hostages in the customs building at the railway station on the Czechoslovak-Austrian border (11, p.118).
29-09-1973 The Austrian government agreed to close the transit point at Schoenau Castle in exchange for the release of four hostages held by terrorists (11, p.118).
29-09-1973 At a press conference in Tripoli two Arab terrorists have declared that the political purpose of their action was to stop aliya to Israel and to prevent the strengthening of the Zionist enemy (11, p.118).
29-09-1973 The Israeli government condemned Austria for yielding to the demands of terrorists and urged the Austrian government to reconsider its decision (11, p.118).
29-09-1973 KGB dispersed the crowd of about 1000 Jews who came to Babi Yar from different cities throughout the Soviet Union for the annual commemoration of Nazi victims (11, p.118).
30-09-1973 President of the World Jewish Congress Nahum Goldmann expressed his protest to President Kreisky of Austria for the closure of the transit point Schoenau Castle   (11, p.118).
30-09-1973 65 American scholars, intellectuals and human rights activists, including 8 Nobel laureates, have protested against the violation of human rights in the Soviet Union and denounced the authorities' actions taken against Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn (11, p.118).
00-10-1973 A case was open against Professor Gelikh on charges of espionage. Subsequently, no one was convicted. (22, Dina Beilin).
01-10-1973 After the speech of Golda Meir, "The European Council" unanimously adopted a resolution, under which no government should restrict the possibility of transit for immigrants (11, p.118-119).
02-10-1973 Demonstration of 10 "khunweybins" near the TASS building. Four were arrested for 10-15 days; five were fined; and one was expelled from Moscow to his place of residence in Riga. (11, p.119, 22, Michael Babel).
02-10-1973 Golda Meir's visit to Vienna for talks with Chancellor Kreisky. The agreement regarding Schoenau Castle could not be reached, but Austria would continue to transit migrants (11, p.119).
04-10-1973 Olshansky, Davidovich, Ovsischer and Goldin sent letters to Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Podgorny and to Interior Minister Shchelokov with a statement of intent to demonstrate every day until they obtained permission to leave the USSR for  Israel (11, p.119, DM).
04-10-1973 The Beirut newspaper Al Nahar published a statement of the terrorist organization “Eagles of Palestinian Revolution" that threatened attacks on Soviet missions and interests all over the world as long as the USSR did not stop Jewish emigration to Israel (11, p.119).
05-10-1973 Demonstration of "khunweybins" at the building of Interior Ministry. Five demonstrators were arrested, four of them sentenced to 10-15 days of detention. Also detained three foreign journalists covering the demonstration. (22, Michael Babel, 11, p.119).
05-10-1973 In connection with the terrorist kidnapping in Austria, Egyptian and Syrian press criticized the USSR for allowing Jewish emigration to Israel (11, p.119).
06-10-1973 The beginning of the Yom Kippur War.
07-10-1973 TASS statement on Israeli aggression against Egypt and Syria (11, p.119).
07-10-1973 45 Moscow Jews published a letter of solidarity with Israel. Similar statements were also sent by many groups of Jews from different cities of the Soviet Union throughout the whole war (11, p.119).
08-10-1973 Kissinger spoke against the connection of the freedom of emigration in the Soviet Union with its status of most-favored nation.
08-10-1973 Sakharov's appeal to the Supreme Court demanding the release of Yuri Shikhanovich from a psychiatric hospital.
09-10-1973 Demonstration of "khunweybins” in front of the APN. All three were arrested (22, Michael Babel, 11, p.119).
11-10-1973 In order to disrupt the press conference held at the apartment of David Azbel, David Azbel and Vitaly Rubin were detained. Vitaly’s wife Inna Rubin was sent to police custody. Police and KGB placed guards near the apartment of Mark Azbel. Detainees were held in the district police stations until late in the evening, and then released (36, Volume 2, p.221).
13-10-1973 Peter Pinkhasov from Derbent, sentenced to five years in prison. The trial served as a warning to other Jews of Derbent wishing to apply for exit visas to Israel (24, p.80).
13-10-1973 TASS statement condemning the "bandit raid" of the Israeli Air Force on the Soviet ship and the cultural center in Damascus (11, p.120).
13-10-1973 Demonstration of Alexander Slepak, Yona Kolchinsky and Evgeny Kirzhner in support of Israel near the Central Committee of Communist Party. All three were beaten up, arrested and jailed for 15 days. Also detained five correspondents who witnessed the demonstration (24, 68, 11, p.120).
14-10-1973 The visit of Algerian President Houari Boumedienne in Moscow. The joint communique proclaims all possible assistance in the liberation of the occupied territories (11, p.120).
15-10-1973 An article in "Pravda", directed against Andrei Sakharov for his criticism of Soviet aid to Arabs during the war (11, p.120).
16-10-1973 Israeli troupes crossed the Suez Canal and invaded Egypt. 
17-10-1973 The Soviet press published information about anti-Israel rallies of Soviet citizens in factories and institutes (11, p.120-121).
18-10-1973 As a result of a provocation, Alexander Feldman was arrested near the Kiev Synagogue after the celebration of Simchat Torah. Next day his apartment was searched and books for the study of Hebrew and Jewish History confiscated. (24, p.73).
18-10-1973 The Moscow authorities directed to Arkhipova street a stream of cars in order to prevent Jews from singing, dancing and having fun at the celebration of Simchat Torah near the Moscow Central Synagogue (11, p.121).
19-10-1973 President Nixon asked Congress for two billion dollars of military assistance to Israel.
20-10-1973 About 100 Jews in Moscow offered to donate blood for Israel through the Red Cross. The Soviet Red Cross refused. Then the Jews appealed to the international Red Cross (11, p.121).
21-10-1973 A terrorist organization “Black September” threatens Sakharov for his support for Israel (11, p.121).
21-10-1973 Henry Kissinger and Leonid Brezhnev met in Moscow to discuss the plan for a cessation of military actions in the Middle East (On October 22, Egypt and Israel accept the UN proposal of a ceasefire, but the fighting continued).
23-10-1973 Leonid Zabelyshensky from Sverdlovsk is arrested again on charges of a "parasitic way of life". (24, p.78).
24-10-1973 Many activists were called for interrogation, where they were warned not to be active during the "World Congress of Peace Forces” in Moscow" (11, p.121).
25-10-1973 23 Moscow Jews had intended to hold a demonstration in the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and to deliver a letter with 85 signatures requesting the release of Silva Zalmanson. All were arrested on the outskirts of the Supreme Soviet and spent the next two days in custody (11, p.121).
25-10-1973 Prisoners of Zion in Pot’ma and Perm’ declared a hunger strike (11, p. 121).  
25-10-1973 The World Congress of Peace Forces was opened in Moscow. It lasted until October 31st (11, p.121).
26-10-1973 In a speech at the World Congress of Peace Forces Leonid Brezhnev denounced the ongoing campaign in the West in defense of human rights in socialist countries.
26-10-1973 10 Moscow Jews appealed to the World Congress of Peace Forces with  an open letter calling to condemn the harassment and persecution of Jews in the USSR(11, p.121).
26-10-1973 16 wives and relatives of Jews, arrested on October 25th, appealed to the Chairman of Amnesty International Sean McBride who participated in the World Congress of Peace Forces, with an appeal for help. (11, p.121).
27-10-1973 Thirteen Jews were arrested near the synagogue in Kishinev. In this regard, ten Jews sent a protest letter to the Prosecutor General of Moldova and the Attorney General of the USSR (11, p.121).
31-10-1973 In Moscow, 12 refuseniks were arrested on the last day of the Peace Congress (11, p.121). 
02-11-1973 Valery Panov and his wife Galina Rogozin (Leningrad) began a hunger strike in protest against the denial of exit visas. The hunger strike will continue for 19 days and will cease only at the request of physicians (11, p.122).
02-11-1973 Physicist Tiemkin receives an exit visa to Israel. His daughter Marina was returned to her mother (11, p.122, DM).
03-11-1973 Three Leningrad Jews staged a demonstration near OVIR against unjust refusals. They were arrested and detained for 15 days. All went on hunger strike (11, p.122).
05-11-1973 British artists have launched a protest campaign outside the Soviet Embassy in London against the denial of permission to emigrate for the Panovs, as well as in solidarity with their hunger strike (11, p.122).
12-11-1973 After his family left the USSR for Israel, Peter Pinkhasov from Derbent, sentenced to five years in prison for "private carpentry works" (11, p.123).
15-11-1973 Jewish Parliamentarians in England declared a Month of Solidarity with Prisoners of Zion (11, p.123).
18-11-1973 Canadian Foreign Minister Mitchell Sharp discussed the issue of Soviet Jews with his counterpart Andrei Gromyko during his visit to Moscow (11, p.123).
19-11-1973 Alexander Feldman from Kiev sentenced to 3.5 years "for hooliganism" (11, p.123).
23-11-1973 7 Kiev Jews declared a hunger strike in protest against the sentence imposed upon Alexander Feldman. Activists in Moscow, Leningrad, Tbilisi, Riga and Novosibirsk also joined the hunger strike (24, p.76).
23-11-1973 Thirty Moscow Jews condemned the wave of arrests of activists fighting for emigration on fabricated criminal offenses.
23-11-1973 Myron Dorfman, Kishinev, has declared an indefinite hunger strike in protest against the denial of permission to emigrate to Israel. He was trying to leave since 1966. Dorfman was on hunger strike for 21 days (11, p.123).
27-11-1973 Pravda reported on a visit to the USSR of the PLO delegation, headed by Yasser Arafat (11, p.124).
30-11-1973 Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences Benjamin Levich, addressed an open letter to scientists around the world. In this letter, he   described his persecution: deprivation of the opportunity to continue his scientific activities; the use of his work without being quoted; and the removal of references to his works from new scientific publications (11, p.124).
30-11-1973 32 Leningrad Jews appealed to the City Prosecutor with the protest against the detention of three activists, who demonstrated outside Leningrad OVIR (11, p.124)
00/12/1973 The mayor and governor of New York declared the month of December -  Solidarity with Soviet Prisoners of Zion.
06-12-1973 Gerald Ford is sworn in as the 40th U.S. president.
07-12-1973 60 Jews appealed to the Politburo in Moscow with a letter of protest against the trial and fabricated charges against Alexander Feldman in Kiev (11, p.124, DM).
09-12-1973 Police did not allow 150 Jews of Riga to gather at the place of mass muder of Jews by Nazis in Rumbula (11, p.124).
10-12-1973 KGB officers threatened Valery Panov with a trial "for parasitism”, if he did not get a job and did not stop meeting with foreign correspondents and tourists. They tried to convince his wife, Galina to leave her husband (11, p.124).
10-12-1973 On the day of the 25th anniversary of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" 183 Jewish activists appealed to the UN Secretary General with a letter about violations of this declaration in the USSR (11, p.125). 
10-12-1973 The closure of Schoenau Castle by the Austrian government. Expatriates now have to go directly to Israel (11, p.125).
10-12-1973 New York Jews hold a demonstration outside the Soviet Mission to the UN. They placed at the door of the Mission 42 roses - one for each of Prisoners of Zion (11, p.125).
11-12-1973 The House of Representatives of the U.S. Congress adopts the Jackson-Vanik Amendement (319 for, 80 against) (8, p.41).
19-12-1973 Valery Panov said that he refuses to leave without his wife (11, p.125).
20-12-1973 Trial of Leonid Zabelyshensky. Sentence - six months for "parasitic way of life" (24, p.80).
24-12-1973 A hunger strike of solidarity with the Prisoners of Zion in many cities across the Soviet Union on the anniversary of the sentencing of the Leningrad Trial (11, p.125).
27-12-1973 Colonels Davidovich, Olshansky and Ovsischer from Minsk held a press conference in Moscow where they spoke about the threats of arrest if they do not stop fighting for departing the Soviet Union for Israel. (11, p.125).
27-12-1973 Ukraine's Supreme Court did not grant an appeal for Alexander Feldman and left the sentence unchanged (11, p.126).
28-12-1973 66 Jews from Kishinev, Bendery, Moscow, Tiraspol and Tbilisi appealed to the International Red Cross with the request to help Myron Dorfman to emigrate to Israel (11, p.126)

List of sources 
to the chronology of events


Employed abbreviations: a.a. - the archive of the author; DM - date of a message (not of an event); t.m.- a telephone message from Moscow in real time.
Other sources of information are listed below. Their numbers are given in the chronology in parentheses.

  1. Boris Morozov, "Jewish Emigration in the light of new documents," Cummings Center, Tel Aviv University "," TSHSD, 1998.
  2. Ann Shenkar, Newsletter "Actions Committee," (English).
  3. "Wikipedia", http://ru.wikipedia.org .
  4. "Jewish electronic encyclopedia" http://www.eleven.co.il.
  5. Concise Jewish Encyclopedia, tom.8, "Society for the Exploration of the Jewish community", Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 1996.
  6. Jewish Encyclopedia, CD-Rom Edition
  7. Friedman, Murray and Chernin, Albert, Editors, "A Second Exodus, The American Movement to Free Soviet Jews", Hanover, Brandeis University Press, 1999.
  8. Gilbert, Martin, "Shcharansky, Hero of Our Time", London, Macmillan London Limited, 1986.
  9. Levin, Nora, "The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917, Paradox of Survival", Volume I, Volume II, New York and London, New York University Press, 1988.
  10. Prital David, "Jews of the FSU in Israel and Diaspora".
  11. Soviet Jewish Affairs, Chronicle of Events, Sources are Western Press reports, unless specifically stated.
  12. Rosenfeld Nancy "Unfinished Journey".
  13. Interview.
  14. Washington Post.
  15. Wurtman Enid, Articles in "Jerusalem Post" and audiocassettes of telephone talks with refuseniks in Russia.
  16. Schroeter, Leonard, "The Last Exodus", Jerusalem, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Jerusalem, 1974.
  17. Insight, 70 Years of Soviet Union.
  18. Nehemia Levanon, Code Nativ, Am Oved, 1995, Hebrew.
  19. Yuli Kosharovsky, "We are once again the Jews", Volume 1, 2007.
  20. "Anti-Jewish processes in the Soviet Union 1969-1971 years", edition of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Centre for Research of East European Jewry in 1979.
  21. Pinkus, Benjamin, National Revival, Heritage Center, Ben-Gurion, 1993, Hebrew.
  22. Interview of the author.
  23. "A collection of letters, petitions and appeals", Center for the Study of East European Jewry. 
  24. Shindler, Colin, "Exit Visa, Détente, Human Rights and the Jewish Emigration Movement in the USSR", London, Bachman and Turner, 1978.
  25. Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry. Newsletter.
  26. Gilbert, Martin, "The Jews of Hope, The Plight of Soviet Jewry Today", London, Macmillan London Limited, 1984.
  27. Fain, Benjamin, "Faith and Reason", Mahanaim, Jerusalem 2007.
  28. Bulletin UCSJ "Alert".
  29. Lerner, Alexander, "Change of Heart", Minneapolis, Lerner Publication Company, Rehovot, Balaban Publishers, 1992.
  30. Lein, Evgeny "Lest we forget".
  31. Israel Public Council for Soviet Jewry, Israel, Profile.
  32. Gilbert, Martin, "The Jews of Hope, The Plight of Soviet Jewry Today" London, Macmillian London Limited, 1984.
  33. Joel L. Lebowitz, James S. Langer, William I. Glaberson, Editors, "Fourth International conference on collective fenomena", Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Published by The New York Academy of Science, ANYAA9 337, 1-223, 1980.
  34. Joel L. Lebowitz, Editor, "Fourth International conference on collective fenomena", Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Published by The New York Academy of Science, ANYAA9 373, 1-233, 1981.
  35. David Zilberman, "Hunger-strike and demonstration of Soviet Jews in Moscow on March 10-11, 1971", Diary of a demonstrator, The Legend of the exodus from Russia, Nazareth Elit, Israel, 1971.
  36. Inna Axelrod-Rubin "Life is like life”, memories, Jerusalem 2006.

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